Characterization of Anticancer, Antimicrobial, Antioxidant Properties and Chemical Compositions of Peperomia pellucida Leaf Extract
Peperomia pellucida leaf extract was characterized for its anticancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant activities, and chemical compositions. Anticancer activity of P. pellucida leaf extract was determined through Colorimetric MTT (tetrazolium) assay against human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cell line and the antimicrobial property of the plant extract was revealed by using two-fold broth micro-dilution method against 10 bacterial isolates. Antioxidant activity of the plant extract was then characterized using α, α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method and the chemical compositions were screened and identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results of present study indicated that P. pellucida leaf extract possessed anticancer activities with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 10.4±0.06 µg/ml. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were ranged from 31.25 to 125 mg/l in which the plant extract was found to inhibit the growth of Edwardsiella tarda, Escherichia coli, Flavobacterium sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Vibrio cholerae at 31.25 mg/l; Klebsiella sp., Aeromonas hydrophila and Vibrio alginolyticus at 62.5 mg/l; and it was able to control the growth of Salmonella sp. and Vibrio parahaemolyticus at 125 mg/l. At the concentration of 0.625 ppt, the plant extract was found to inhibit 30% of DPPH, free radical. Phytol (37.88%) was the major compound in the plant extract followed by 2-Naphthalenol, decahydro- (26.20%), Hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester (18.31%) and 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z)-, methyl ester (17.61%). Findings from this study indicated that methanol extract of P. pellucida leaf possessed vast potential as medicinal drug especially in breast cancer treatment.
Ong HC, Nordiana M. Malay ethno-medico botany in Machang, Kelantan, Malaysia. Fitoterapia 1999;70(5):502-13.
Ghani A. Medicinal plants of Bangladesh. Dhaka, Bangladesh: Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, 1998.
Muñoz V, Sauvain M, Bourdy G, Arrázola S, Callapa J, Ruiz G, Choque J, Deharo E. A search for natural bioactive compounds in Bolivia through a multidisciplinary approach. Part III. Evaluation Of theantimalarial activity of plants used by Alteños Indians. JEthnopharmacol 2000;71(1-2):123-31.
Bayma JD, Arruda MS, Müller AH, Arruda AC, Canto WC. A dimeric ArC2 compound from Peperomiapellucida. Phytochemistry 2000;55(7):779-82.
de Fátima Arrigoni-Blank M, Dmitrieva EG, Franzotti EM,Antoniolli AR, Andrade MR, Marchioro M. Antiinflammatoryand analgesic activity of Peperomiapellucida (L.) HBK (Piperaceae). J Ethnopharmacol2004;91(2-3):215-8.
Aziba PI, Adedeji A, Ekor M, Adeyemi O. Analgesic activity of Peperomia pellucida aerial parts in mice.Fitoterapia 2001;72(1):57-8.
Khan A, Rahman M, Islam MS. Neuropharmacological effects of Peperomia pellucida leaves in mice. DARU2008;16(1):35-40.
Ragasa CY, Dumato M, Rideout JA. Antifungal compounds from Peperomia pellucida. ACGC Chem Res Commun 1998;7:54-61.
Xu S, Li N, Ning MM, Zhou CH, Yang QR, Wang MW. Bioactive compounds from Peperomia pellucida. J Nat Prod 2006;69(2):247-50.
Adebayo AH, Tan NH, Akindahunsi AA, Zeng GZ, ZhangYM. Anticancer and antiradical scavenging activity ofAgeratum conyzoides L. (Asteraceae). Pharmacogn Mag 2010;6(21):62-6.
Lee SW, Wendy W, Julius YFS, Desy FS. Characterization of antimicrobial, antioxidant, anticancer property andchemical composition of Sauropus androgynus stem extract. Acta Med Lituanica 2011;18(1):12-6.
Lee SW, Wendy W, Julius YFS, Desy FS. Characterization of antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer property andchemical composition of Ficus deltoidea Jack. leaf extract. J Biol Active Products Nature 2011;1(1):1-6.
Mosmann T. Rapid colorimetric assay for cellular growthand survival: application to proliferation and cytotoxicityassays. J Immunol Methods 1983;65(1-2):55-63.
Lee SW, Wendy W, Julius YFS, Desy FS. Characterizationof antimicrobial, antioxidant, anticancer properties andchemical composition of Malaysian Andrographis paniculata leaf extract. Pharmacologyonline 2011;2:996- 1002.
Daud A, Gallo A, Riera AS. Antimicrobial properties of Phrygilanthus acutifolius. J Ethnopharmacol 2005;99(2):193-7.
Lee SW, Najiah M. Inhibition of Edwardsiella tarda and other fish pathogens by Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae)extract. American-Eurasian J Agric Environ Sci2008;3(5):692-96.
Blois MS. Antioxidant determination by the use of a stable free radical. Nature 1958;181:1199-200.
Yen GC, Duh PD. Scavenging effect of methanolicextracts of peanut hulls on free radical and active oxygen species. J Agric Food Chem 1994;42(3):629-32.
Brand-Williams W, Cuvelier ME, Berset C. Use a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. Food SciTechnol 1995;28:25-30.
Gadow AW, Joubert E, Hansmann CF. Comparison of theantioxidant activity of rooibos tea (Aspalathus linearis)with green, oolong and black tea. Food Chem1997;60(1):73-7.
Lee SW, Najiah M, Wendy W, Nadirah M. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Syzgium aromaticum flower bud (clove) against fish systemic bacteria isolated from aquaculture sites. Frontier Agricultural China 2009;3(3):332-6.
Mutee AF, Salhimi SM, Yam MF, Lim CP, Abdullah GZ, Ameer OZ, Abdulkarim MF, Asmawi MZ. In vivo antiinflammatory and in vitro antioxidant activities of Peperomia pellucida. Int J Pharmacol 2010;6(5):686-90.
Han HJ, Tan NH, Zeng GZ, Fan JT, Huang HQ, Ji CJ, Jia RR, Zhao QS, Zhang YJ, Hao XJ, Wang LQ. Natural inhibitors of DNA topoisomerase I with cytotoxicities. Chem Biodivers 2008;5(7):1364-8.
Kumar PP, Kumaravel S, Lalitha C. Screening of antioxidant activity, total phenolics and GC-MS study of Vitex negundo. African J Biochem Res 2010;4(7):191-5.