Anti-Melanogenic Activity and Cytotoxicity of Pistacia vera Hull on Human Melanoma SKMEL-3 Cells
AbstractPistacia vera seed is a common food and medicinal seed in Iran. It's hull (outer skin) as a significant byproduct of pistachio, is traditionally used as tonic, sedative and antidiarrheal and has been shown to be a rich source of antioxidants. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the anti-melanogenic activity of the pistachio hulls in order to discover a new alternative herbal agent to treat skin hyperpigmentation disorders. In this work, antioxidant and anti-tyrosinase activity of MeOH extract from Pistacia vera hull (MPH) were evaluated in vitro, respectively, by DPPH radical scavenging and mushroom tyrosinase activity assays. Then the effect of MPH on the melanin content, cellular tyrosinase activity and cytotoxicity (MTT assay) on human melanoma SKMEL-3 cell were determined followed by 72 h incubation. The results indicated that MPH had valuable DPPH radical scavenging effect and weak anti-tyrosinase activity when compared to the well-known antioxidant (BHT) and tyrosinase inhibitor (kojic acid), respectively. MPH, at a high dose (0.5 mg/mL), showed significant cytotoxic activity (~63%) and strong anti-melanogenic effect (~57%) on SKMEL-3 cells. The effect of MPH in the reduction of melanin content may be related to its cytotoxicity. The results obtained suggest that MPH can be used as an effective agent in the treatment of some skin hyperpigmentation disorders such as melanoma.
Dupont E, Gomez J, Bilodeau D. Beyond UV radiation: a skin under challenge. Int J Cosmet Sci 2013; 35:224-232.
Matsumura Y, Ananthaswamy HN. Toxic effects of ultraviolet radiation on the skin. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2004; 195:298-308.
Spritz RA, Hearing VJ Jr. Genetic disorders of pigmentation. Adv Hum Genet 1994; 22:1-45.
Momtaz S, Mapunya BM, Houghton PJ, Edgerly C, Hussein A, Naidoo S, Lall N: Tyrosinase inhibition by extracts and constituents of Sideroxylon inerme L. stem bark, used in South Africa for skin lightening. J Ethnopharmacol 2008; 119:507-512.
Tsao YT, Huang YF, Kuo CY, Lin YC, Chiang WC, Wang WK, Hsu CW, Lee CH. Hinokitiol Inhibits Melanogenesis via AKT/mTOR Signaling in B16F10 Mouse Melanoma Cells. Int J Mol Sci 2016;17:248-15.
Chan YY, Kim KH, Cheah SH. Inhibitory effects of Sargassum polycystum on tyrosinase activity and melanin formation in B16F10 murine melanoma cells. J Ethnopharmacol 2011; 137:1183-1188.
Husni A, Jeon JS, Um BH, Han NS, Chung D. Tyrosinase inhibition by water and ethanol extracts of a far eastern sea cucumber, Stichopus japonicus. J Sci Food Agric 2011; 91:1541-1547.
Kashaninejad M, Mortazavi A, Safekordi A, Tabil LG. Some physical properties of Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) nut and its kernel. J Food Engineering 2006; 72:30-38.
Bozorgi M, Memariani Z, Mobli M, Salehi Surmaghi MH, Shams-Ardekani MR, and Rahimi R. Five Pistacia species (P. vera, P. atlantica, P. terebinthus, P. khinjuk, and P. lentiscus): A Review of Their Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology. ScientificWorld J. 2013; 2013:219815.
Josse AR, Kendall CW, Augustin LS, Ellis PR, Jenkins DJ. Almonds and postprandial glycemia-a dose-response study. Metabolism 2007; 56:400-404.
Dreher ML: Pistachio nuts: composition and potential health benefits. Nutr Rev 2012; 70: 234-240.
Shrafkandi A. Avicenna: The Canon. Tehran, Iran: Soroush Press 2008.
Rajaei A, Barzegar M, Mobarez AM, Sahari MA, Esfahani ZH. Antioxidant, anti-microbial and antimutagenicity activities of pistachio (Pistachia vera) green hull extract. Food Chem Toxicol 2010; 48:107-120.
Goli AH, Barzegar M, Sahari MA. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds of pistachio (Pistachia vera) hull extracts. Food Chem 2005; 92: 521-525.
Farahpour MR, Mirzakhani N, Doostmohammadi J, Ebrahimzadeh M. Hydroethanolic Pistacia atlantica hulls extract improved wound healing process; evidence for mast cells infiltration, angiogenesis and RNA stability. Int J Surg 2015; 17:88-98.
Tomaino A, Martorana M, Arcoraci T, Monteleone D, Giovinazzo C, Saija A: Antioxidant activity and phenolic profile of pistachio (Pistacia vera L., variety Bronte) seeds and skins. Biochimie 2010; 92:1115-1122.
Sarkhail P, Sarkheil P, Khalighi-Sigaroodi F, Shafiee A, Ostad N. Tyrosinase inhibitor and radical scavenger fractions and isolated compounds from aerial parts of Peucedanum knappii Bornm. Nat. Prod. Res 2013; 27:896-899.
Chang CC, Yang MH, Wen HM, Chern JC. Estimation of total flavonoid content in propolis by two complementary colorimetric methods. J Food Drug Anal 2002; 10:178-182.
Blois MS. Antioxidant determinations by the use of a stable free radical. Nature 1958; 181:1199-1200.
Mosmann T. Rapid colorimetric assay for cellular growth and survival: application to proliferation and cytotoxicity assays. J Immunol Methods 1983; 65:55-63.
M. Salimi, P. Sarkhail, P. Sarkheil, H. Mostafapour Kandelous, M. Baeeri. Evaluation of anti-melanogenic activity of Ziziphus jujuba fruits obtained by two different extraction methods. Res J Pharmacogn 2016; 3:1-7.
Slominski A, Zbytek B, Slominski R. Inhibitors of melanogenesis increase toxicity of cyclophosphamide and lymphocytes against melanoma cells. Int J Cancer 2009;124:1470-7.
Slominski A, Kim TK, Brożyna AA, Janjetovic Z, Brooks DL, Schwab LP, Skobowiat C, Jóźwicki W, Seagroves TN. The role of melanogenesis in regulation of melanoma behavior: melanogenesis leads to stimulation of HIF-1α expression and HIF-dependent attendant pathways. Arch Biochem Biophys 2014; 563:79-93.
Ohguchi K, Akao Y, Nozawa Y. Stimulation of melanogenesis by the citrus flavonoid naringenin in mouse B16 melanoma cells. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2006; 70:1499-501.