Acta Medica Iranica 2004. 42(3):218-222.

S. M. Alamshah


In order to create an effective arteriovenous fistula (AVF) in patients with sustained chronic renal failure (CRF), surgeons need to become familiar with various anatomical variations of venous structures in the operating field. Because of variety and different types of cubital venous anatomies, there is more than a 90% possibility of creating suitable AVFs in the cubital fossa , but in the wrist and forearm, due to old injections and thrombophlebitis, there is less chance to do so. Since cephalic vein is the main venous conduit for constructing an AVF in the antecubital region, this study focuses on the
various anatomical variations of cephalic vein and its communicating branches. We studied the cubital cephalic anatomy of 103 patients with CRF during construction of an AVF from July 1999 to June 2001. Five types of cephalic vein anatomy were seen: type A (44.66%), type B (30.1%), type C (18.44%), type D (3.88%) and type E (2.29%) in 39 right and 64 left arms. Seventy-six anastomoses were performed to brachial trunk, 25 to the radial and 2 to the ulnar artery. Eleven cases with progressive swelling after AVF were uneventfully cured by hand elevation. No infection, false aneurysm, venous hypertension or steal syndrome was detected. In order to obtain the best results and select appropriate operative technique for reliable vascular access in CRF, it is necessary to understand the anatomical variety of cephalic vein.


Arteriovenous fistula, dialysis, cubital fossa, cephalic vein,

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