Pulmonary Adverse Effects of Welding Fume in Automobile Assembly Welders
Welding is one of the key components of numerous manufacturing industries, which has potential physical and chemical health hazards. Many components of welding fumes can potentially affect the lung function. This study investigates the effects of welding fumes on lung function and respiratory symptoms among welders of an automobile manufacturing plant in Iran. This historical cohort study assesses 43 male welders and 129 office workers by a questionnaire to record demographic data, smoking habits, work history and respiratory symptoms as well as lung function status by spirometry. The average pulmonary function values of welders were lower relative to controls with dose-effect relationship between work duration and pulmonary function impairment. The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was higher in welders than controls. Our findings suggest that welders are at risk for pulmonary disease.
Sjogren B. Effects of gases and particles in welding and soldering. In: Zenz C, Dickerson OB, Horvath EP, editors.=Occupational Medicine. 3rd ed. Chicago, IL: Mosby-Year Book; 1994. p. 917-23.
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Criteria for a recommended standard: welding, brazing, and thermal cutting. Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) Publication, 1988. p. 88-110.
Luo JC, Hsu KH, Shen WS. Pulmonary function abnormalities and airway irritation symptoms of metal fumes exposure on automobile spot welders. Am J Ind Med 2006;49(6):407-16.
Antonini JM, Lewis AB, Roberts JR, Whaley DA. Pulmonary effects of welding fumes: review of worker and experimental animal studies. Am J Ind Med 2003;43(4):350-60.
Jafari AJ, Assari MJ. Respiratory effects from workrelated exposure to welding fumes in Hamadan, Iran. Arch Environ Health 2004;59(3):116-20.
Meo SA, Azeem MA, Subhan MM. Lung function in Pakistani welding workers. J Occup Environ Med 2003;45(10):1068-73.
Miller MR, Hankinson J, Brusasco V, Burgos F, Casaburi R, Coates A, Crapo R, Enright P, van der Grinten CP, Gustafsson P, Jensen R, Johnson DC, MacIntyre N, McKay R, Navajas D, Pedersen OF, Pellegrino R, Viegi G, Wanger J; ATS/ERS Task Force. Standardisation of spirometry. Eur Respir J 2005;26(2):319-38.
Bradshaw LM, Fishwick D, Slater T, Pearce N. Chronic bronchitis, work related respiratory symptoms, and pulmonary function in welders in New Zealand. Occup Environ Med 1998;55(3):150-4.
El-Zein M, Malo JL, Infante-Rivard C, Gautrin D. Prevalence and association of welding related systemic and respiratory symptoms in welders. Occup Environ Med 2003;60(9):655-61.
Ozdemir O, Numanoğlu N, Gönüllü U, Savaş I, Alper D, Gürses H. Chronic effects of welding exposure on pulmonary function tests and respiratory symptoms. Occup Environ Med 1995;52(12):800-3.
Rossignol M, Seguin P, DeGuire L. Evaluation of the utility of spirometry in a regional public health screening program for workers exposed to welding fumes. J Occup Environ Med 1996;38(12):1259-63.
Wang ZP, Larsson K, Malmberg P, Sjögren B, Hallberg BO, Wrangskog K. Asthma, lung function, and bronchial responsiveness in welders. Am J Ind Med 1994;26(6):741-54.
Erkinjuntti-Pekkanen R, Slater T, Cheng S, Fishwick D, Bradshaw L, Kimbell-Dunn M, Dronfield L, Pearce N. Two year follow up of pulmonary function values among welders in New Zealand. Occup Environ Med 1999;56(5):328-33.
Kilburn KH, Warshaw RH. Pulmonary functional impairment from years of arc welding. Am J Med 1989;87(1):62-9.
Wolf C, Pirich C, Valic E, Waldhoer T. Pulmonary function and symptoms of welders. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 1997;69(5):350-3.
Sobaszek A, Boulenguez C, Frimat P, Robin H, Haguenoer JM, Edme JL. Acute respiratory effects of exposure to stainless steel and mild steel welding fumes. J Occup Environ Med 2000;42(9):923-31.
Meo SA. Spirometric evaluation of lung function (maximal voluntary ventilation) in welding workers. Saudi Med J 2003;24(6):656-9.
Rastogi SK, Gupta BN, Husain T, Mathur N, Srivastava S. Spirometric abnormalities among welders. Environ Res 1991;56(1):15-24.
Beckett WS, Pace PE, Sferlazza SJ, Perlman GD, Chen AH, Xu XP. Airway reactivity in welders: a controlled prospective cohort study. J Occup Environ Med 1996;38(12):1229-38.
Lillienberg L, Zock JP, Kromhout H, Plana E, Jarvis D, Torén K, Kogevinas M. A population-based study on welding exposures at work and respiratory symptoms. Ann Occup Hyg 2008;52(2):107-15.
Kilburn KH, Warshaw RH, Boylen CT, Thornton JC. Respiratory symptoms and functional impairment from acute (cross-shift) exposure to welding gases and fumes. Am J Med Sci 1989;298(5):314-9.