Biochemical Risk Factors for Stone Formation in Healthy School Children
Prevalence of urolithiasis in childhood is increasing. The wide geographic variation in the incidence of lithiasis in childhood is related to climatic, dietary, and socioeconomic factors. Many children with stone disease have a metabolic abnormality. In Southeast Asia, urinary calculi are endemic and are related to dietary factors. The main aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of renal stone, urine metabolic abnormality, control of blood pressure and demographic character in elementary school children of Qom. A cross sectional study was performed on 110 primary school children (56 girls and 54 boys) aged 7 to 11 years old. Demographic data such as age, height, weight were gathered, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure, Urine analysis and culture, urinary levels of calcium, creatinine, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, uric acid, cystine, citrate, oxalate, protein and sonographic findings were evaluated. The mean (±SD) of age was 8.85±1.51 years. Only one child had renal stone (1%), but the prevalence of abnormal renal sonography was 7%. The most prevalent urine metabolic abnormalities were hypercalciuria (23%) and hypocitraturia (100%). 11.2% of children had positive urine culture that all were female. The prevalence of high blood pressure was 7.1% for girls and 11.1% for boys. The prevalence of renal stone in children in this study was 1%, which means the accurate judgment about the prevalence of renal stone in Qom city needs more comprehensive studies. Similar to other studies in Iran this study shows that the prevalence of hypercalciuria is significantly higher comparing to other countries, it may be associated with excessive intake of sodium.
Uri S Alon,Tarak Srivastava. Urolithiasis. In: Kanwal K Kher, H William Schenapner, Sudesh Paul Makker . Clinical Pediatric Nephrology,2th ed. Informa, 2007;539-52.
Remzi D, Cakmak F, Erkan I. A study on urolithiasis incidence in school age children. J Urol 1980;123(4):608–10.
VanDervoort K, Wiesen J, Frank R, Vento S, Crosby V, Chandra M, Trachtman H. Urolithiasis in pediatric patients: a single center study of incidence clinical presentation and outcome. J Urol 2007;177(6):2300–5.
Erbagci A, Erbagci AB, Yilmaz M, Yagci F, Tarakcioglu M, Yurtseven C, Koyluoglu O, Sarica K. Pediatric urolithiasis evaluation of risk factors in 95 children. Scan JUrol Nephrol 2003;37(2):129–33.
Akhavan M, shajari A, Heidari A. Clinical manifestation and Etiology of Renal Stones in Children Less than
Years Age. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2010;21(1):181-4.
Saud Al-Rasheed, Nasir A.M Al Jurayyan, Mohamed N Al= Nasser, Mohamed M Al-Mugeiren, Abdullah A Al- Salloum, Bo Adrian Petterson. Nephrolithiasis in childrenand adolescents in the South Western region of Saudi Arabia. Saudi journal of kidney disease and transplantation 1995;6(4):396-9.
Rizvi SA, Sultan S, Zafar MN, Ahmed B, Faiq SM,Hossain KZ, Naqvi SA. Evaluation of children withurolithiasis. Indian J Urol 2007;23(4):420-7.
Pearle M Y. Urinary Lithiasis. In: Wein, Kavoussi L, Novick A, Partin AW, Peters CA. Campbell-Walash urology, volume 2. Sunders. Philadelphia. 2007, 1363-525.
Stoller ML, Bolton DM. Urinary Stone Disease. In Tanagho EA, McAninch JW, editors. Smith's General Urology, 16th edition, New York, Mc Graw Hill, 2004:256-90. 10. Robertson WG. Renal stones in the tropics. Semin Nephrol 2003;23(1):77-87.
Dursun I, Poyrazoglu HM, Dusunsel R, Gunduz Z, Gurgoze MK, Demirci D, Kucukaydin M. Pediatric urolithiasis: an 8-year experience of single centre. Int Urol Nephrol 2008;40(1):3-9.
Jack S, Elder. Urinary lithiasis. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton ST,Schor, Behrman RE, editors. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, 19th edition, Philadelphia, Elsevier, 2011:1884.
Dawn S, Milliner. Urolithiasis. In: Ellis D. Avner, William E. Harmon, Patrick Niaudet, Norishige Yoshikawa, editors. Pediatric Nephrology. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Philadelphia, 2009: 1405-30.
Kaplan BS, Meyers KEC. Pediatric Nephrology and Urology. Elsevier Mosby, 2004:361-74.
Cameron MA, Sakhaee K, Moe OW. Nephrolitiasisin children. Pediatr Nephrol 2005; 20(11):1587–92.
Van’t Hoff WG. Etiological factors in Pediatric Urolithiasis. Nephron Clin Pract, 2004;98:c45-8.
Thomas SE, Stapleton FB. Urolithiasis in children.In: Gonzales ET, Bauer SB, editors. Pediatric urology practice. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, 1999:607-19.
Langman CB, Moore ES. Pediatric urolithiasis. In: Edelmann CM Jr k, editors. Pediatric kidney disease. Boston, Little Brown, USA, 1992: 2005-13.
Barratt TM, Duff PG Nephroc alcinosis and urolithiasis. In: Barrat TM, Avner ED, Harmon WE, editors. Pediatric nephrology. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Pennsylvania; 1999: 933-45.
Pinduli I, Spivacow R, del Valle E, Vidal S, Negri AL, Previgliano H, Farías Edos R, Andrade JH, Negri GM, Boffi-Boggero HJ. Prevalence of urolithiasis in the autonomous city of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Urol Res 2006;34(1):8-11.
Sönmez F, Akçanal B, Ayça Altıncık and Yenisey Ç. Urinary Calcium excretion in healthy Turkish children. Int Urol Nephrol 2007;39(3):917-22.
Berçem G, Cevit O, Toksoy HB, Içagasioglu D, Gültekin A, Tanzer F. Asymptomatic hypercalciuria: prevalence and metabolic characteristics. Indian J Pediatr 2001;68(4):315-8.
Negri AL, Spivacow FR, Del Valle EE, Forrester M,Rosende G, Pinduli I. Role of overweight and obesity on the urinary excretion of promoters and inhibitors of stone formation in stone formers. Urol Res 2008;36(6):303-7.
Bak M, Ural R, Agin H, Serdaroglu E, Calkavur S. The metabolic etiology of urolithiasis in Turkish children. Int Urol Nephrol 2009;41(3):453-60.
Sharifian M, B. Hatamian B, R. Dalirani R, Aghasi P, Akhavan sepahi M. Evaluation of response to treatment with polycitra-K in urolithiasis of children. JQUMS 2011;14(4):28-34.