Severe Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia; Causes and Contributing Factors Leading to Exchange Transfusion at Ghaem Hospital in Mashhad
Hyperbilirubinemia is common in neonates; it can have a serious rising course. Due to its critical morbidity called "kernicterus", severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia causes which lead to exchange transfusion, should be clarified. This descriptive cross sectional study performed with reviewing of files of 118 neonates weighting 2kg and more who had exchange transfusion in pediatrics ward at Ghaem training hospital in Mashhad from April 2004 to March 2007. Among 118 patients, 75 (63.6%) were male, and 43 patients (36.4%) were female. The most common cause of exchange transfusion was ABO incompatibility (38.1%). In order of frequency, unknown etiology (25.4%), Rh incompatibility (16.1%) with no immune hydrops, Sepsis(8.5%), urinary tract infection (5.1%) and others (3.4%) (Including Crigler-Najjar and cephalohematoma) were next ones. Vaginal delivery and exclusive breast feeding were detected as associated factors. Mean serum bilirubin levels was 28.7 mg/dl (SD. 9.2) ABO incompatibility. ABO incompatibility was the main cause of exchange transfusion. Male gender, vaginal delivery and exclusive breast feeding were seen more among patients who need to be exchanged. So in case of ABO incompatibility especially when delivery route is vaginal, newborns should be visited soon again after early discharge from hospital.
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