Acta Medica Iranica 2014. 52(12):931-934.

Are Iranians aware of carbon monoxide poisoning: symptoms and its prevention strategies?
Seyed Hassan Emami-Razavi, Mahsa Ghajarzadeh, Sepehr Aziz, Amirhossein Keyvan, S Adeleh Mirjafari, Faezeh Sodagari


Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is still a health problem all over the world. Informing users about symptoms and suggesting annual inspection of CO producing devices will result in CO poisoning reduction. The goal of this study was to evaluate awareness about CO poisoning symptoms and its prevention ways in Iranian population. In this study, a total of 700 patients' family members attended Imam Khomeni hospital were asked to enroll in the study. A structured questionnaire was used including demographic characteristics, devices which were used at home, awareness of CO poisoning symptoms, awareness of CO detectors, the last time that tubal patency of devices are checked, if it is helpful to open the window to fix gas leak and if surveying devices by an expert at the beginning of the cold season is recommended. A total of 635 participants completed questionnaires. The most used device was gas water heater followed by gas heater. Five hundred and nine reported that they are aware of CO poisoning symptoms (80.1%), 398 (62.6%) stated that it is possible to detect CO leak and 566 (89.1%) told CO detectors would be helpful for reduction of mortality from CO poisoning. Fifty percent of participants had not checked their devices since they have bought their devices. Five hundred and thirty-six (84.4%) reported that opening window could help CO leak, and 596 (93.8%) agreed that an expert checked their fuel-burning devices at the beginning of the winter. Iranian people are not aware of all CO poisoning symptoms. Developing a national strategy for CO surveillance and people education will be helpful.


Carbon monoxide; Poisoning; Prevention; Iran

Full Text:



Raub JA, Mathieu-Nolf M, Hampson NB, et al. Carbon monoxide Poisoning--a public health perspective. Toxicology 2000;145(1):1-14.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Carbon monoxide--related deaths--United States, 1999- 2004. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2007;56(50):1309-12.

Hampson NB, Weaver LK. Carbon monoxide poisoning: a new incidence for an old disease. Undersea Hyperbaric Med 2007;34(3):163-8.

Dianat I, Nazari J. Characteristics of unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning in Northwest Iran--Tabriz. Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot 2011;18(4):313-20.

Abdollahi M, Jalali N, Sabzevari O, et al. A retrospective study of poisoning in Tehran. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 1997;35(4):387-93.

Ahmadi A, Pakravan N, Ghazizadeh Z. Pattern of acute food, drug, and chemical poisoning in Sari City, Northern Iran. Hum Exp Toxicol 2010;29(9):731-8.

Shadnia S, Esmaily H, Sasanian G, et al. Pattern of acute) poisoning in Tehran–Iran in 2003. Hum Exp Toxicol 2007;26(9):753-6.

Nazari J, Dianat I, Stedmon A. Unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning in Northwest Iran: A 5-year study. J Forensic Leg Med 2010;17(7):388-91.

Sheikhazadi A, Saberi Anary SH, Ghadyani MH. Non fire carbon monoxide–related deaths: A survey in Tehran, Iran (2002–2006). Am J Forensic Med Pathol 2010;31(4):359-63.

Hampson NB, Weaver KL. Carbon monoxide poisoning: a new incidence for an old disease. Undersea Hyper Med 2007;34(3):163-8.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Use of carbon monoxide alarms to prevent poisonings during a power outage--North Carolina, December 2002. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2004;53(9):189-92.

King ME, Mott JA. Public health surveillance for carbon monoxide in the United States: a review of national data. In: Penney DG, editor. Carbon monoxide is poisoning. 2nd ed. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press; 2008: p. 233-50.

Meredith T, Vale A. Carbon monoxide poisoning. Br Med J 1988;296(6615):77Y78.

Wilson RC, Saunders PJ, Smith G. An epidemiological study of acute carbon monoxide poisoning in the West Midlands. Occup Environ Med 1998;55(11):723-8.

Clifton JC 2nd, Leikin JB, Hryhorczuk DO, et al. Surveillance for carbon monoxide poisoning using a national media clipping service. Am J Emerg Med 2001;19(2):106-8.

Krenzelok EP, Roth R, Full R. Carbonmonoxide . . . The silent killer with an audible solution. Am J Emerg Med 1996;14(5):484-6.

Yoon SS, Macdonald SC, Parrish RG. Deaths from unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning and potential for prevention with carbon monoxide detectors. JAMA 1998;279(9):685-7.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.