Internet addiction among Iranian adolescents: a nationwide study.
AbstractProblematic use of the Internet by children and adolescents is a newly emerging disorder that has alerted health authorities throughout the world. In Iran, despite the very high speed rate of Internet spread, there is not enough data on the rate of Internet addiction among the adolescents. This study is the first nationwide study that addresses this issue. Overall 4500 students of high school or pre-college schools were recruited from 13/31 provinces of Iran by a cluster sampling method and 4342 (96%) participated. Two self-rated questionnaires (one demographics and one Young's Internet addiction scale) were filled b the participants. Data were analyzed by SPSS software. 962 (22.2%) of the study participants were labeled as having "internet addiction." Males were significantly more likely to be an internet addict (P<0.001). Students whose father and/or mother had a doctorate degree were most likely to have Internet addiction (P<0.001 for both). Job engagement of mothers was significantly associated with students' internet addiction, and the least rate of addiction was observed when the mother was a housewife (P<0.001); having no exercise was associated with the highest rate of Internet addiction (P<0.001). Stepwise logistic regression models showed gender (male), older age, mother's occupation, family's financial status (either very high or very low), low quality of family relationship, and students' lower levels of religious devotion were significantly associated with having Internet addiction. This study showed that Internet addiction in Iranian adolescents is prevalent, and has several independent factors, from which, family relations is most likely to be modifiable. Improvements in family relations and more strict parental supervision, especially when mothers have active job employment, are recommended.
Internet. Wikipedia. (Accessed in Jan 14, 2014, at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/INTERNET#History).
Siomos KE, Dafouli ED, Braimiotis DA, et al. Internet addiction among Greek adolescent students. Cyberpsychol Behav 2008;11(6):653-7.
Kubey RW, Lavin MJ, Barrows JR, et al. Internet use and collegiate academic performance decrements: early findings). J Commun 2001;51(2):366-82.
Internet World Stats. (Accessed in Jan 14, 2014, at http://www.internetworldstats.com/me/ir.htm).
Ghassemzadeh L, Shahraray M, Moradi A. Prevalence of internet addiction and comparison of internet addicts and non-addicts in Iranian high schools. Cyberpsychol Behav 2008;11(6):731-3.
Krejcie RV, Morgan DW. Determining sample size for research activities. Educ Psychol Meas 1970;30(3):607-10.
Young KS, editor. Caught in the Net. 1st ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons; 1998: p. 58.
Young KS. Internet Addiction: The Emergence of a New Clinical Disorder. CyberPsychol Behav 1998;1(3):237-44.
Morahan-Martin J. Internet use and abuse and psychological problems. In: Joinson A, McKenna K, Postmes T, et al, editors. Oxford Handbook of Internet Psychology. 1st ed. New York: Oxford University Press; 2009: p. 331-16.
Pallanti S, Bernardi S, Quercioli L. The Shorter PROMIS Questionnaire and the Internet Addiction Scale in the assessment of multiple addictions in a high-school population: prevalence and related disability. CNS Spectr 2006;11(12):966-74.
Yoo HJ, Cho SC, Ha J, et al. Attention deficit hyperactivity symptoms and internet addiction. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2004;58(5):487-94.
Jang KS, Hwang SY, Choi JY. Internet addiction and psychiatric symptoms among Korean adolescents. J Sch Health 2008;78(3):165-71.
Ko CH, Yen JY, Chen CS, et al. Predictive values of psychiatric symptoms for internet addiction in adolescents: a 2-year prospective study. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2009;163(10):937-43.
Fu KW, Chan WS, Wong PW, et al. Internet addiction: prevalence, discriminant validity and correlates among adolescents in Hong Kong. Br J Psychiatry 2010;196(6):486-92.