Hard ticks (Ixodidae) and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in south west of Iran.
AbstractTicks are vectors of some important arthropod-borne diseases in both fields of veterinary and medicine, such as Lyme, tularemia, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and some types of encephalitis as well as Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF). Iran is known as one of the main foci of CCHF in west of Asia. This study was conducted in DarrehShahr County because of the development of animal husbandry in this area to detect the fauna and viral infection of the hard ticks of livestock. A cross-sectional survey was conducted during 2011-2012 with random sampling in four villages. A sample of ticks was subjected to RT-PCR method for detection of viral infection. During the study period, 592 Ixodidae ticks were collected and identified as seven species of Hyalomma asiaticum, Hy. marginatum, Hy. anatolicum, Hy. dromedarii, Hy. detritum, Rhipicephalus bursa and Rh. sanguineus. More than 20% of these ticks were examined to detect the genome of CCHF virus while 6.6% were positive. All species of Hyalomma were found to be positive. A high rate of livestock was found to be infected with hard ticks, which can act as the vectors of the CCHF disease. Regarding infection of all five Hyalomma species captured in this area, this genus should be considered as the main vector of CCHF. Planning control program can be performed based on the obtained data on seasonal activity of Ixodidae to prevent animal infestation as well as to reduce the risk of CCHF transmission.
Parola P, Raoultd D. Ticks and tickborne bacterial diseases in humans: an emerging infectious threat. Clin Infect Dis 2001;32(6):897-928.
Vahedi Noori N, Rahbari S, Bokaei S. The seasonal activity of Rhipicephalus bursa in cattle in Amol (Northern Iran). World Appl Sci J 2012;18(4):590-3.
Hoogstral H, Valdez R, editors. Ticks (Ixodoidae) from wild sheep and goats in Iran and medical and veterinary implications. 1st ed. Field Museum of Natural History 1980: p. 1-16.
Morzaria S, Katende J, Kairo A, et al. New methods for the diagnosis of Babesia bigemina the infection. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 1992;87(Suppl 3):201-5.
Wolfel R, Paweska JT, Petersen N, et al. Low-density macroarray for rapid detection and identification of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus. J Clin Microbiol 2009;47(4):1025-30.
Soares-weiser K, Thomass S, Gail G, et al. Ribavirin for Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Infect Dis 2010;10:207.
Mardani M, Bijani B, Zare Kh. Case report: Histopatological findings in necropsy of a patient with fatal Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in Iran. J Res Med Sci 2004;27(2):157-61.
Sureau P, Klein JM, Casals J, et al. Isolation of Thogoto, Wad Medani, Wanowrie and Crimean-Congo Hemorragic fever viruses from ticks of domestic animals in Iran. Annals de Virologie 1980;131(2):185-200.
Izadi Sh, Holakouie-Naeini K, Majdzadeh SR, et al.Prevalences of Congo-Crimean hemorrhagic fever in Sistan va Baluchestan Province: a serological study. Payesh J 2003;2(2):85-93.
Chinikar S, Ghiasi S, Moradi M, et al. Lessons of 10 years experience on CCHF in Iran. BMC 2011;5(Suppl 1):58.
Ranjbar Bahadori Sh. Study of species' diversity of animal ticks in Garmsar. J Vet Res 2003;58(1):11-4.
Moradi A, Telmadarraiy Z, Moradi A. Contamination rate of sheep to cattle ticks and its distribution in Bahar County. J Vet Med 2010;83(1):26-8.
Bahman Shabestari A, Davoodi J. Study on goat's tick fauna and seasonal variations of tick population in Zanjan Province. Vet Res 2009;5(2):79-84.
Rasooli S, Rajabi A, Jafari K, et al. Epidemiology of a severe pandemic could infect Sheep in Maragheh County. Vet Res 2011;10(4):61-6.
Hashemzadeh Farhang H, Khayatnoori M, Gharahdaghi Y, et al. Determined species diversity of hard ticks on referential sheep to the slaughter of Mahabad City. Vet Res 2011;12(4):61-6.
Telmadarraiy Z, Bahrami A, Vatandoost H. A Survey on fauna of ticks in West Azerbaijan Province, Iran. Iran J Publ Health 2004;33(4):65-9.
Asgarian F, Enayati A, Amooii A, et al. The fauna, geographic distribution and seasonal activity of hard Ticks from Sari Township in 2007-2008. J Mazandaran Univ Med Sci 2012;83(1):21-5.
Salim abadi Y, Telmadarraiy Z, Vatandoost H, et al. Hard ticks on domestic ruminants and their seasonal population dynamics in Yazd Province, Iran. Iran J Arthropod Borne Dis 2010;4(1):66-71.
Nasiri A, Telmadarraiy Z, Vatandoost H, et al. Tick infestation rate of sheep and their distribution in Abdanan County, Ilam Province, Iran, 2007-2008. Iran J Arthropod Borne Dis 2010;4(2):56-60.
MotevalliHaghi F, Razmi G, Fakhar M, et al. The hard ticks (Ixodidae) fauna of livestock in Sari suburb, Northern Iran. Comp Clin Pathol 2013;22(1):5-8.
Mirzaei Dehaghi M, Fathi S, NorouziAsl E, et al. Prevalence of Ixodid ticks on cattle and sheep southeast of Iran. Trop Anim Health Prod 2011;43(2):459-61.
Nourollahi Fard SR, Fathi S, Norouzi Asl E, et al. Hard ticks on one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius) and their seasonal population dynamics in southeast, Iran. Trop Anim Health prod 2012;44(1):197-200.
Moshaverinia A, Dini M, Azizzadeh M. Prevalence of ixodid tick infestation of sheep in the Arasbaran region of Iran. J Parasit Dis 2012;36(2):230-33.
Shemshad K, Rafinejad J, Kamali K, et al. Species diversity and geographic distribution of hard ticks (Acari: Ixodoidea:Ixodidae) infesting domestic ruminants, in Qazvin Province, Iran. Parasitol Res 2012;110(1):373-80.
Walker AR, Bouattour A, editors. Ticks of domestic animals in Africa, A guide to identification of species. 1st ed. Winsconsin, U.K: Bioscience Reports; 2003: p. 157.
Chinikar S, Persson SM, Johansson M, et al. Genetic analysis of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in Iran. J Med Virol 2004;73(3):404-11.
Hosseini-vasoukolaei N, Telmadarraiy Z, Babamahmoodi F, et al. A survey of ixodid ticks parasiting domestic ruminants in Ghaemshahr District, Mazandaran Province, Iran. (Accessed in Jan 2014, 14, at http://www.apjtm.net/admin/picture/UploadFile/20111231 154156525.pdf).
Yakhchali M, Hosseini A. Prevalence and ectoparasites fauna of sheep and goats flocks in Urmia suburb, Iran. Vet Arch 2006;76(5):431-42.
Telmadarraiy Z, Tighi S, Ghiasi SM, et al. Evaluation of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever situation in East Azerbaijan Province: A serological and molecular Epidemiology Survey 2009. [EPUB ahead of print]
Sarani M. Distribution of hard ticks and their infection to CCHF virus in Golestan Province using GIS method [Dissertation]. School Publ Health, Tehran Univ Med Sci., 2011.
Rahbari S, Nabian S, Shayan P. Primary report on distribution of tick fauna in Iran. J Parasitol Res 2007;101(Suppl 2):S175-7.
Gholami Parizad A. A survey on distribution of Ixodidae and Argasidae ticks in Ilam Province of Iran [Dissertation]. School Publ Health, Tehran Univ Med Sci., 1995.
Tavakoli M. Survey on geographical distribution of ticks in Lorestan Province [Dissertation]. Tarbiat Modarres Univ., 1997.
Khorramrooz A. Geographical distribution of Argasidae and Ixodidae ticks in Boyerahmad and Dena Counties, Kohgiluye va Boyerahmad Province of Iran. [Dissertation]. School Publ Health, Tehran Univ Med Sci., 2004.
Rafieebarzoki M. Identification of hard ticks of domesticated ruminants in Semnan Province. Pajouhesh Sazandegi 2007;77(1):88-95.
Salari Sh, Vatandoost H, Telmadarraiy Z, et al. Seasonal Activity of ticks and their importance in tick-borne infectious diseases in west Azerbaijan, Iran. Iran J Arthropod Borne Dis 2008;2(2):28-34.
Tighi S. Survey on the Argasidae and Ixodidae ticks to CCHF virus by RT-PCR method and detection of its’ IgG antibody in livestock and the at risk human cases in Bonad and Sarab Counties [Dissertation]. School Publ Health, Tehran Univ Med Sci., 2006.
Telmadarraiy Z, Davari AR, Chinikar S, et al. Ruminant animal ticks and their role in CCHF transmission in Ghaen, South Khorassan Province, Iran during 2005. Proceedings of the 11th International Congress of Parasitology. Glasgow, Scotlandm, UK; 2006.
Telmadarraiy Z, Moradi AR, Vatandoost H, et al. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever: A seroepidemiological and molecular survey in Bahar, Hamadan Province of Iran. Asian J Anim Vet Adv 2008;3(5):321-7.
Telmadarraiy Z, Ghiasi SM, Moradi M, et al. A survey of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in livestock and ticks in Ardabil province, Iran during 2004-2005. Scand J Infect Dis 2010;42(2):137-4.
Tonbak S, Aktas M, Altay K, et al. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus: genetic analysis and tick survey in Turkey. J Clin Microbiol 2006;44(11):4120-4.