CCharacteristics of Traumatic Brain Injury among Accident and Falling Down Cases
AbstractMotor vehicle and falling down are responsible for the most number of traumatic injuries. This study aimed to compare the characteristics of traumatic brain injury among accident and falling down cases. In this analytical cross- sectional study, data were collected from the records of cadavers who died due to accident or falling down and referred to Kahrizak dissection hall, Tehran forensic medicine organization during 2013. A total of 237 subjects (183 (77.2%) accident and 54 (22.8%) falling down) with a mean age of 35.62 (SD=15.75) were evaluated. A number of 213 (89.9%) were male. From accident group, scalp injury was seen in 146 (79.8%), scalp abrasion in 122 (66.7%), scalp laceration in 104 (56.8%), sub skull bruising in 176 (96.3%), skull fracture in 119 (65%), hemorrhage in 166 (90.7%), Subdural hemorrhage (SDH) in 155 (84.7%), Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in 161 (88%), Epidural hemorrhage (EDH) in 41 (22.4%), contusion in 140 (76.5%), and skull base fracture in 140 (76.5%) of cases. In falling down group scalp injury was seen in 42 (77.8%) cadavers, scalp abrasion in 38 (70.4%), scalp laceration in 30 (55.6%), sub skull bruising in 49 (90.7%), skull fracture in 39 (72.2%), Hemorrhage in 49 (90.7%), SDH in 43 (79.6%), SAH in 47 (87%), EDH in 10 (18.5%), contusion in 33 (61.1%), and skull base fracture in 39 (72.2%) of cases. There was no significant difference between these two groups (P Value> 0.05). Accident and falling down had no difference in terms of any injury or hemorrhage.
Langlois JA, Rutland-Brown W, Thomas KE. Traumatic Brain Injury in the United States: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (Accessed in May 2015, 10, at http://www.cdc.gov/traumaticbraininjury/pdf/blue_book.pdf).
Bruns J Jr, Hauser WA. The Epidemiology of Traumatic Brain Injury: a Review. Epilepsia 2003;44(Suppl 10):2-10.
Zhao H, Chen R, Deng G, et al. Comparison of injuries sustained by drivers and pillion passengers in fatal head-on motorcycle collision accidents. Forensic Sci Int 2011;207(1-3):188-92.
Annegers JF, Grabow JD, Kurland LT, et al. The incidence, causes, and secular trends of head trauma in Olmsted County, Minnesota, 1935-1974. Neurology 1980;30(9):912-9.
Tiret L, Hausherr E, Thicoipe M, et al. The epidemiology of head trauma in Aquitaine (France), 1986: a communitybased study of hospital admissions and deaths. Int J Epidemiol 1990;19(1):133-40.
Wang Q, Ishikawa T, Michiue T, et al. Fatal facial– intracranial impalement injury in an accidental fall from a height: An autopsy case report with a review of the literature. Forensic Sci Int 2010;2000(1-3):e21-4.
Sosin DM, Sniezek JE, Waxweiler RJ. Trends in death associated with traumatic brain injury, 1979 through 1992: success and failure. JAMA 1995;273(22):1778-80.
Fonsceca RJ, editor. Mandibular fractures. Oral and Maxillofacial Trauma. 3rd ed. USA: Elsevier Sanders; 2005: p. 486-7.
Cooper KD, Tabaddor K, Hauser WA, et al. The epidemiology of head injury in the Bronx. Neuroepidemiology 1983;2(2-3):70-88.
Zhao YD, Wang W. Neurosurgical trauma in people of the Republic of China: World J Surg 2001;25(9):1202-4.
Kreutzberg GW, Blakemorn WF, Graeber MB. Cellular pathology of the central nervous system. In: Greenfield JG, Lantos PL, editors. Greenfield’s Neuropathology. 5th ed. London: Edward Arnold; 1996: p. 126-32.
DiMaio, DJ. Blunt Trauma Injuries of the Trunk and Extremities. In: DiMaio VJM, DiMaio DJ, editors. Forensic Pathology. 2nd ed. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2001: p. 117-45.
Dimaio VJ, Dimiao DP. Fire Deaths. In: Dimaio VJ, Dimiao DP, editors. Forensic Pathology. Boca Raton: CRC press; 2001: p. 367-88.
Thierauf A, Preuss J, Lignitz E, et al. Retrospective analysis of fatal falls. Forensic Sci Int 2010;198(1-3):92-6.
Petaros A, Slaus M, Coklo M, et al. Retrospective analysis of free-fall fractures with regard to height and cause of fall. Forensic Sci Int 2013;226(103):290-5.