Balance Performance of Deaf Children With and Without Cochlear Implants
AbstractThe aim of this study was to compare the static and dynamic balance performance of deaf children with and without cochlear implants. This is a cross-sectional study of 145 school children, aged between 7 and 12 years comprising 85 children with congenital or early acquired bilateral profound sensorineural hearing loss (the hearing loss group) and 60 normal hearing aged-matched control counterparts were assessed using the balance subtest of Bruininks-Oseretsky test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP). The hearing loss group, 50 without cochlear implants (the non-implant group) and 35 of them with unilateral cochlear implants (the implant group) were recruited from schools for the deaf and normal hearing children (the control group) randomly selected from two randomly selected elementary schools of Tehran city. The scores were analyzed using one-way ANOVA. The total score of deaf children especially the implant group were significantly lower than the control group )P<0.001). The balance performance of the control group was better than the implant group in all of the items as well as the non-implant group except the fourth tested item (walking forward on a line) (P<0.05). The balance score of the implant group was significantly lower than the non-implant group except for the third tested item (standing on the preferred leg on a balance beam with eyes closed). The findings suggested that deaf children, specifically those with cochlear implants are at risk for motor and balance deficits. Thus, vestibular and motor evaluations, as well as interventions to improve balance and motor skills, should be prioritized for this population.
Rajendran V, Roy FG. An overview of motor skill performance and balance in hearing impaired children. Ital J Pediatr 2011;37:33
Nashner LM. Practical biomechanics and physiology of balance. In: Jacobson P, Newman CW, Kartush JM, eds. Handbook of balance functions testing. 1st ed. Chicago: Singular, 1993:261-79.
Rine RM, Christy JB. Physical Therapy Management of Children with Vestibular Dysfunction. In: Herdman SJ, Clendaniel RA, eds. Vestibular Rehabilitation. 4th ed. Philadelphia: F.A. Davis Company, 2014:457.
Cushing SL, Papsin BC, Rutka JA, James AL, Gordon KA. Evidence of vestibular and balance dysfunction in children with profound sensorineural hearing loss using cochlear implants. Laryngoscope 2008;118:1814-23.
Suarez H, Angeli S, Suarez A, Rosales B, Carrera X, Alonso R. Balance sensory organization in children with profound hearing loss and cochlear implants. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2007;71:629-37.
De Kegel A, Dhooge I, Peersman W, Rijckaert J, Baetens T, Cambier D, et al. Construct validity of the assessment of balance in children who are developing typically and in children with hearing impairments. Phys Ther 2010;90:1783-94.
Maes L, De Kegel A, Van Waelvelde H, Dhooge I.Association between vestibular function and motor performance in hearing-impaired children. Otol Neurotol 2014;35:e343-e7.
Ayanniyi O, Adepoju FA, Mbada CE. Static and dynamic balance in school children with and without hearing
impairment. J Exp Integr Med 2014;4:245-8.
Walicka-Cupryś K, Przygoda Ł, Czenczek E, Truszczyńska A, Drzał-Grabiec J, Zbigniew T, et al. Balance assessment in hearing-impaired children. Research in developmental disabilities. 2014;35:2728-34.
Gheysen F, Loots G, Van Waelvelde H. Motor development of deaf children with and without cochlear implants. J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ 2008;13:215-24.
Thierry B, Blanchard M, Leboulanger N, Parodi M, Wiener-Vacher SR, Garabedian E-N, et al. Cochlear implantation and vestibular function in children. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2015;79:101-4.
Licameli G, Zhou G, Kenna MA. Disturbance of vestibular function attributable to cochlear implantation in children. Laryngoscope 2009;119:740-5.
Abdelghaffar H, Elshazly M. Cochlear implants in children with vestibular hypofunction. Egypt J Ear Nose Throat Allied Sci 2011;12:49-52.
Krause E, Wechtenbruch J, Rader T, Gürkov R. Influence of cochlear implantation on sacculus function. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2009;140:108-13.
Krause E, Louza JP, Wechtenbruch J, Gürkov R.Influence of cochlear implantation on peripheral vestibular receptor function. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2010;142:809-13.
Incesulu A, Vural M, Erkam U. Children with cochlear implants: Parental perspective. Otol Neurotol
Schlumberger E, Narbona J, Manrique M. Non-verbal development of children with deafness with and without cochlear implants. Dev Med Child Neurol 2004;46:599-606.
Buchman CA, Joy J, Hodges A, Telischi FF, Balkany TJ.Vestibular effects of cochlear implantation. Laryngoscope
Bruininks RH, Oseretsky N. Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency: American Guidance Service. (Accessed May 2016, 12, at http://users.manchester.edu/student/chjones/ProfWeb/Bru ininks-Oseretskey%20Test.pdf).
Brunt D, Broadhead GD. Motor proficiency traits of deaf children. Res Q Exerc Sport 1982;53:236-8.
Horak FB, Shumway-Cook A, Crowe TK, Black FO.Vestibular function and motor proficiency of children with impaired hearing, or with learning disability and motor impairments. Deve Med Child Neurol 1988;30:64-79.
Rine RM, Lindeblad S, Donovan P, Vergara K, Gostin J, Mattson K. Balance and Motor Skills in Young Children With Sensorineural Hearing Impairment: A Preliminary Study. Pediatr Phys Ther 1996;8:55-61.
Livingstone N, Mcphillips M. Motor skill deficits in children with partial hearing. Dev Med Child Neurol 2011;53:836-42.
Melo RdS, Silva PWAd, Tassitano RM, Macky CFS, Silva LVCd. Balance and gait evaluation: comparative study between deaf and hearing students. Rev Paul Pediatr 2012;30:385-91.
Jin Y, Nakamura M, Shinjo Y, Kaga K. Vestibular- evoked myogenic potentials in cochlear implant children. Acta Otolaryngol 2006;126:164-9.
Psillas G, Pavlidou A, Lefkidis N, Vital I, Markou K, Triaridis S, et al. Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in children after cochlear implantation. Auris Nasus Larynx 2014;41:432-5.
Shall MS. The importance of saccular function to motor development in children with hearing impairments. Int J Otolaryngol 2010;2009:972565.
Bernard-Demanze L, Léonard J, Dumitrescu M, Meller R, Magnan J, Lacour M. Static and dynamic posture control in postlingual cochlear implanted patients: effects of dual- tasking, visual and auditory inputs suppression. Front Iintegr Neurosci 2014;7:111.
Shumway-Cook A, Wollacott MH, eds. Abnormal Postural control in Motor Control: Translating Research into Practice. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2012:260-2.
Keshner EA, AK G. Postural abnormalities in vestibular disorders. In: Herdman SJ, Clendaniel R, eds. Vestibular rehabilitation. 4th ed. Philadelphia: FA Davis, 2014:85-109.
Cushing SL, Chia R, James AL, Papsin BC, Gordon KA.A test of static and dynamic balance function in children with cochlear implants: the vestibular olympics. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2008;134:34-8.