Acta Medica Iranica 2017. 55(8):507-513.

Seasonality in Violent and Nonviolent Methods of Suicide Attempts: A Cross-Sectional Study on Systematic Registry Data
Yousef Veisani, Ali Delpisheh, Kourosh Sayehmiri, Ghobad Moradi, Jafar Hassanzadeh

Abstract


Little attention has been paid to seasonality in suicide in Iran. Time pattern in suicide deaths and suicide attempts for some related factors such as gender, mental disorders has been found. In present study, we focus on suicide methods and the association with seasonality and other putative covariates such as gender. Through a cross-sectional study, overall identified suicide attempts and suicide deaths in the province of Ilam from 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2014 were enrolled. We used Edwards' test for test of seasonality in suicide methods. Seasonal effect (peak/trough seasons) and (deaths/attempts suicide) was explored by ratio statistics, the null hypothesis being that the attempted suicides in each method group are evenly distributed over a year. More suicide attempts by hanging 29.4% and self-immolation 41.4% were observed in spring and differ by season pattern in both genders. The overall distribution of suicides by violent and non-violent methods was (males x2=6.3, P=0.041, females x2=7.7, P=0.021) and (males x2=44.5, P=0.001, females x2=104.7, P=0.001), respectively. The peak and trough seasons was observed in taking medications and self-poisoning for spring and winter. Suicide with alcohol was no differ by season pattern (x2=1.0, P=0.460). Suicide in Ilam illustrates a significant seasonality for both violent and non-violent methods of suicide, in both genders, the two peaks were observed in spring and autumn for violent suicides, and spring and summer in non-violent suicides.


Keywords


Seasonality; Suicide; Methods; Iran

Full Text:

PDF

References


Kessler RC, Borges G, Walters EE. Prevalence of and risk factors for lifetime suicide attempts in the National Comorbidity Survey. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1999;56:617-26.

Petridou E, Papadopoulos FC, Frangakis CE, Skalkidou A, Trichopoulos D. A role of sunshine in the triggering of suicide. Epidemiology 2002;13:106-9.

Preti A, Miotto P. Influence of method on seasonal distribution of attempted suicides in italy. Neuropsychobiology 2000;41:62-72.

Veisani Y, Delpisheh A, Sayehmiri K, Moradi G, Hassanzadeh J. Associations of Suicide Seasonality with Rural- Urban Residence and Mental Disorders in Ilam, Iran. Iran J Med Sci 2016;41:461-2.

Parker G, Walter S. Seasonal variation in depressive disorders and suicidal deaths in New South Wales. Br J Psychiatry 1982;140:626-32.

Ho TP, Chao A, Yip P. Seasonal variation in suicides re- examined: no sex difference in Hong Kong and Taiwan. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1997;95:26-31.

Ajdacic-Gross V, Bopp M, Ring M, Gutzwiller F, Rossler W. Seasonality in suicide – A review and search of new concepts for explaining the heterogeneous phenomena. Soc Sci Med 2010;71:657-66.

Hakko H, Rasanen P, Tiihonen J. Seasonal variation in suicide occurrence in Finland. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1998;98:92-7.

Ajdacic-Gross V, Wang J, Bopp M, Eich D, Rössler W, Gutzwiller F. Are seasonalities in suicide dependent on suicide methods? A reappraisal. Soc Sci Med 2003;57:1173-81.

Rocchi MB, Sisti D, Miotto P, Preti A. Seasonality of suicide: relationship with the reason for suicide. Neuropsychobiology 2007;56:86-92.

Linkowski P, Martin F, De Maertelaer V. Effect of some climatic factors on violent and non-violent suicides in Belgium. J Affect Disord 1992;25:161-6.

Lester D, Frank ML. Sex differences in the seasonal distribution of suicides. Br J Psychiatr 1988;153:115-7.

Brezo J, Paris J, Turecki G. Personality traits as correlates of suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and suicide completions: a systematic review. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2006;113:180-206.

Jia C-X, Zhang J. Characteristics of Young Suicides by Violent Methods in Rural China. J forensic Sci 2011;56:674-8.

Oravecz R, Rocchi MBL, Sisti D, Zorko M, Marusic A, Preti A. Changes in the seasonality of suicides over time in Slovenia, 1971 to 2002. J Affect Disord 2006;95:135-40.

Kiadaliri AA, Saadat S, Shahnavazi H, Haghparast- Bidgoli H. Overall, gender and social inequalities in suicide mortality in Iran, 2006–2010: a time trend province-level study. BMJ Open 2014;4:e005227.

Veisani Y, Delpisheh A, Sayehmiri K, Moradi G, Hassanzadeh J. Suicide Attempts in Ilam Province, West of Iran, 2010-2014: A Time Trend Study. J Res Health Sci 2016;16:64-7.

Veisani Y, Delpisheh A, Sayehmiri K, Moradi G, Hassanzadeh J. Decomposing Socioeconomic Inequality Determinants in Suicide Deaths in Iran: A Concentration Index Approach. Korean J Fam Med 2017;38:135-40.

Seghatoleslam T, Habi H, Rashid RA, Mosavi N, Asmaee S, Naseri A. Is Suicide Predictable? Iran J Public Health 2012;41:39-45.

Lin HC, Chen CS, Xirasagar S, Lee HC. Seasonality and Climatic Associations with Violent and Nonviolent Suicide: A Population-Based Study. Neuropsychobiology 2008;57:32-7.

Sun S-H, Jia C-X. Completed Suicide with Violent and Non-Violent Methods in Rural Shandong, China: A Psychological Autopsy Study. PLoS One 2014;9:e104333.

Kalediene R, Starkuviene S, Petrauskiene J. Seasonal patterns of suicides over the period of socio-economic transition in Lithuania. BMC Public Health 2006;6:40.

Malakouti SK, Davoudi F, Khalid S, Ahmadzad Asl M, Moosa Khan M, Alirezaei N, et al.. The Epidemiology of Suicide Behaviors among the Countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region of WHO: a Systematic Review. Acta Medica Iranica 2015;53:257-65.

Rotton J. Determinism Redux: Climate and Cultural Correlates of Violence. Environ Behav 1986;18:346-68.

Massing W, Angermeyer MC. The monthly and weekly distribution of suicide. Soc Sci Med 1985;21:433-41.

Maes M, Scharpé S, Verkerk R, D'Hondt P, Peeters D, Cosyns P, et al. Seasonal variation in plasma l- tryptophan availability in healthy volunteers: Relationships to violent suicide occurrence. Archiv Gen Psychiatr 1995;52:937-46.

Preti A, Miotto P. Seasonality in suicides: the influence of suicide method, gender and age on suicide distribution in Italy. Psychiatr Res 1998;81:219-31.

Lester D. Seasonal variation in suicide and the methods used. Percept Mot Skills 1999;89:160.

Rasanen P, Hakko H, Jokelainen J, Tiihonen J. Seasonal variation in specific methods of suicide: a national register study of 20,234 Finnish people. J Affect Disord 2002;71:51-9

Amiri B, Pourreza A, Rahimi Foroushani A, Hosseini SM, Poorolajal J. Suicide and associated risk factors in Hamadan province, west of Iran, in 2008 and 2009. J Res Health Sci 2012;12:88-92.

Afghah S, Aghahasani M, Noori-Khajavi M, Tavakoli E. Survey of suicide attempts in sari. Iran J Psychiatr 2014;9:89-95.

Dixon PG, McDonald AN, Scheitlin KN, Stapleton JE, Allen JS, Carter WM, et al. Effects of temperature variation on suicide in five U.S. counties, 1991–2001.. Int J Biometeorol 2007;51:395-403.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.