Effects of Inhaled Salbutamol on Sport-Specific Fitness of Non-Asthmatic Football Players
In this article, we investigated the effectiveness of inhaled salbutamol withtherapeutic dose on the sport-specific performance of non-asthmatic young football players. In a double-blinded, randomised placebo controlled trial with 2-treatment, 2-period crossover design, twenty participants who were non-asthmatic junior professional football players were randomly allocated to two groups. Fifteen minutes before sport-specific fitness testing, each group randomly received 2 inhalations (200 micrograms) of salbutamol or placebo, respectively. After 1 week wash-out period, each participant has tested again, this time with the alternative inhaler. The primary outcomes were the differences between salbutamol and placebo groups in six tests of 7×30-m repeated sprint, Loughborough soccer dribbling, vertical jump, agility, Loughborough soccer passing, 20-m multistage shuttle run. A total of twenty players did two test batteries completely. There was no significant difference between salbutamol and placebo users in the tests [Treatment effect (CI95%); 7×30 sprint: -2.4 (-7.6-2.9), dribbling: -3.8 (-12.2-4.5), vertical jump: -1.2 (-3.7-1.3), agility: -0.4 (-0.9-0.1), passing: 0.2 (-12-12.4), shuttle run distance: -112 (-503.2-279.2)]. Furthermore, no period or carry-over effects were detected. It seems that single therapeutic dose of inhaled salbutamol (200 micrograms) does not appear to improve football related performance.
Carlsen KH, Anderson SD, Bjermer L, Bonini S, Brusasco V, Canonica W, et al. Exercise-induced asthma, respiratory and allergic disorders in elite athletes: epidemiology, mechanisms and diagnosis: part I of the report from the Joint Task Force of the European Respiratory Society (ERS) and the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) in cooperation with GA2LEN. Allergy. 2008;63:387-403.
Bangsbo J. The physiology of soccer--with special reference to intense intermittent exercise. Acta Physiol Scand Suppl. 1994;619:1-155.
Stølen T, Chamari K, Castagna C, Wisløff U. Physiology of soccer. Sports medicine. 2005;35:501-36.
Sødal A. Bronchial hyperreactivity, exercise induced asthma and allergy. A study of female national team athletes in soccer Norwegian University of Sport and Physical Education. 1997.
Beck KC, Joyner MJ, Scanlon PD. Exercise-induced asthma. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews. 2002;30:1-3.
Fitch KD. beta2-Agonists at the Olympic Games. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2006;31:259-68.
Wolfarth B, Wuestenfeld JC, Kindermann W. Ergogenic effects of inhaled beta2-agonists in non-asthmatic athletes. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2010;39:75-87, ix.
Pluim BM, de Hon O, Staal JB, Limpens J, Kuipers H, Overbeek SE, et al. beta(2)-Agonists and physical performance: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Sports Med. 2011;41:39-57.
WADA. The World Anti-Doping Code. The 2011 Prohibited list. 2011.
Dvorak J, Graf-Baumann T, D'Hooghe M, Kirkendall D, Taennler H, Saugy M. FIFA's approach to doping in football. Br J Sports Med. 2006;40 Suppl 1:i3-i12.
Dvorak J, McCrory P, D’Hooghe M. FIFA’s future activities in the fight against doping. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2006;40:i58-i9.
Sporer BC, Sheel AW, McKenzie DC. Dose response of inhaled salbutamol on exercise performance and urine concentrations. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2008;40:149-57.
Moher D, Hopewell S, Schulz KF, Montori V, Gøtzsche PC, Devereaux P, et al. CONSORT 2010 explanation and elaboration: updated guidelines for reporting parallel group randomised trials. Journal of clinical epidemiology. 2010;63:e1-e37.
Kirkendall DT, Leiper JB, Bartagi Z, Dvorak J, Zerguini Y. The influence of Ramadan on physical performance measures in young Muslim footballers. J Sports Sci. 2008;26 Suppl 3:S15-27.
Krustrup P, Mohr M, Steensberg A, Bencke J, Kjær M, Bangsbo J. Muscle and blood metabolites during a soccer game: implications for sprint performance. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. 2006;38:1165-74.
Spencer M, Fitzsimons M, Dawson B, Bishop D, Goodman C. Reliability of a repeated-sprint test for field-hockey. J Sci Med Sport. 2006;9:181-4.
Ali A. Measuring soccer skill performance: a review. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2011;21:170-83.
McGregor S, Nicholas C, Lakomy H, Williams C. The influence of intermittent high-intensity shuttle running and fluid ingestion on the performance of a soccer skill. Journal of sports sciences. 1999;17:895-903.
Klavora P. Vertical-jump tests: A critical review. Strength & Conditioning Journal. 2000;22:70.
Markovic G, Dizdar D, Jukic I, Cardinale M. Reliability and factorial validity of squat and countermovement jump tests. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 2004;18:551-5.
Sargent DA. The physical test of a man. American Physical Education Review. 1921;26:188-94.
Rösch D, Hodgson R, Peterson L, Graf-Baumann T, Junge A, Chomiak J, et al. Assessment and evaluation of football performance. The American Journal of Sports Medicine. 2000;28:S-29-S-39.
Ali A, Williams C, Hulse M, Strudwick A, Reddin J, Howarth L, et al. Reliability and validity of two tests of soccer skill. J Sports Sci. 2007;25:1461-70.
Leger L, Mercier D, Gadoury C, Lambert J. The multistage 20 metre shuttle run test for aerobic fitness. Journal of sports sciences. 1988;6:93-101.
Léger LA, Lambert J. A maximal multistage 20-m shuttle run test to predict dot VO2 max. European journal of applied physiology and occupational physiology. 1982;49:1-12.
Jones B, Kenward MG. Design and analysis of cross-over trials: CRC Press; 2003.
van Baak MA, de Hon OM, Hartgens F, Kuipers H. Inhaled salbutamol and endurance cycling performance in non-asthmatic athletes. Int J Sports Med. 2004;25:533-8.
Goubault C, Perault MC, Leleu E, Bouquet S, Legros P, Vandel B, et al. Effects of inhaled salbutamol in exercising non-asthmatic athletes. Thorax. 2001;56:675-9.
Andersen K, Kanstrup I-L. Effects of acute oral administration of 4 mg salbutamol on exercise performance in non-asthmatic elite athletes. JEPonline. 2009;12:36-49.
Bedi JF, Gong H, Jr., Horvath SM. Enhancement of exercise performance with inhaled albuterol. Can J Sport Sci. 1988;13:144-8.
Carlsen KH, Ingjer F, Kirkegaard H, Thyness B. The effect of inhaled salbutamol and salmeterol on lung function and endurance performance in healthy well-trained athletes. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 1997;7:160-5.
Heir T, Stemshaug H. Salbutamol and high-intensity treadmill running in nonasthmatic highly conditioned athletes. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 1995;5:231-6.
Fleck SJ, Lucia A, Storms WW, Wallach JM, Vint PF, Zimmerman SD. Effects of acute inhalation of albuterol on submaximal and maximal VO2 and blood lactate. Int J Sports Med. 1993;14:239-43.
Lemmer JT, Fleck SJ, Wallach JM, Fox S, Burke ER, Kearney JT, et al. The effects of albuterol on power output in non-asthmatic athletes. Int J Sports Med. 1995;16:243-9.
McDowell SL, Fleck SJ, Storms WW. The effects of salmeterol on power output in nonasthmatic athletes. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1997;99:443-9.
Meeuwisse WH, McKenzie DC, Hopkins SR, Road JD. The effect of salbutamol on performance in elite nonasthmatic athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1992;24:1161-6.
Morton AR, Joyce K, Papalia SM, Carroll NG, Fitch KD. Is salmeterol ergogenic? Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine. 1996;6:220-5.
Norris SR, Petersen SR, Jones RL. The effect of salbutamol on performance in endurance cyclists. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1996;73:364-8.
Larsson K, Gavhed D, Larsson L, Holmer I, Jorfelt L, Ohlsen P. Influence of a beta2-agonist on physical performance at low temperature in elite athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1997;29:1631-6.
Sandsund M, Sue-Chu M, Helgerud J, Reinertsen RE, Bjermer L. Effect of cold exposure (-15 degrees C) and salbutamol treatment on physical performance in elite nonasthmatic cross-country skiers. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1998;77:297-304.
Sue-Chu M, Sandsund M, Helgerud J, Reinertsen RE, Bjermer L. Salmeterol and physical performance at -15 degrees C in highly trained nonasthmatic cross-country skiers. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 1999;9:48-52.
McKenzie DC, Rhodes EC, Stirling DR, Wiley JP, Dunwoody DW, Filsinger IB, et al. Salbutamol and treadmill performance in non-atopic athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1983;15:520-2.
Morton AR, Papalia SM, Fitch KD. Is Salbutamol Ergogenic?: the Effects of Salbutamol on Physical Performance in High-Performance Nonasthmatic Athletes. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine. 1992;2:93-7.
Morton AR, Papalia SM, Fitch KD. Changes in Anaerobic Power and Strength Performance After Inhalation of Salbutamol in Nonasthmatic Athletes. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine. 1993;3:14-9.
Signorile JF, Kaplan TA, Applegate B, Perry AC. Effects of acute inhalation of the bronchodilator, albuterol, on power output. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1992;24:638-42.
Hu J, Dickinson J, Chester N, Drust B, Whyte G, Loosemoore M. The effect of 800 μg and 1600 μg inhaled salbutamol on FEV1 in non-asthmatic football players. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2011;45:A20-A.
Dickinson J, Hu J, Chester N, Loosemore M, Whyte G. The Impact of Inhaled Salbutamol on Repeated Sprint Ability in Pre-Fatigued Soccer Players. J Sports Med Doping Stud. 2015;5:2161-0673.100016.
Dickinson J, Hu J, Chester N, Loosemore M, Whyte G. Acute impact of inhaled short acting b2-agonists on 5 km running performance. J Sports Sci Med. 2014;13:271-9.