Comparing the Levels of Acute-Phase Reactants Between Smoker and Nonsmoker Diabetic Patients: More Predicted Risk for Cardiovascular Diseases in Smoker Compared to Nonsmoker Diabetics
AbstractDue to a close link between cardiovascular disorders and increased acute phase responses, it is now proposed the relation of total sialic acid (TSA) and C Reactive Protein (CRP) as main components of acute phase proteins and cardiovascular risk profiles such as diabetes mellitus and smoking. We hypothesized that the elevation in the level of TSA along with other prototype acute phase reactants such as CRP is expected more in the coexistence of diabetes and smoking than in diabetes mellitus alone. Ninety diabetic patients were randomly selected and entered into this case-control study. Using block randomization method, the patients were randomly assigned into smokers (n=45) and nonsmokers (n=45). A group of ten healthy individuals was also included as the control. The serum levels of TSA, CRP, iron, and hemoglobin were measured by the specific techniques. Comparing laboratory parameters across the three groups indicated significantly higher levels of TSA and CRP in smoker diabetics as compared to non-smoker diabetics and the healthy controls, while there was no difference in other parameters including serum iron and hemoglobin. A significant positive correlation was also revealed between TCA and CRP (r=0.324, P=0.030), but no significant association was found between other parameters. In the background of smoking, increasing the level of both TSA and CRP is predicted more than the existence of diabetes mellitus alone. In fact, the increase in these biomarkers is more predictable in smoker than in nonsmoker diabetics. This finding emphasizes the increased risk for cardiovascular disorders in smoker compared to non-smoker diabetics.
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