Incidence and Types of Congenital Anomalies in Newborns in Sulaimaniyah City in Iraq
Congenital anomalies or birth defects can be acquired during the fetal stages of development or from the genetic makeup of the parents. Congenital anomalies are important causes of infant and childhood illness and disability. Little is known about incidence and types of these anomalies in Iraqi Kurdistan. Therefore, this study was undertaken to estimate the incidence and types of congenital anomalies in Sulaimaniyah city. The study was carried out on the hospital's records of all newborns registered as having a congenital anomaly. The records of 586 neonates with congenital anomalies were analyzed from a total of 178,954 live broths that occurred during 4 years in the city. The data was obtained from the statistics section of maternal and a child unit of the Preventive Health Department. The overall incidence of all types of congenital anomalies over the four years was 3.3/1000 live births. There was a statistically significant difference in incidence between males and females over the four years, male to female risk ratio 1.2 (95% CI 1.02-1.42, P= 0.03). The commonest congenital anomalies affected the cardiovascular system accounting for 24% followed by those of the nervous system with 16%. Down syndrome accounted for 14% of all anomalies and cleft lip/palate for 11%. Types of anomalies were statistically associated with low birth weight and maternal age. The study indicates that the incidence of congenital anomalies is not high in the region; however, more extensive studies are required to give a more realistic incidence.
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