Epidemiology and Risk Factors of Cancer Among Children and Adolescents in Sulaimani City: A Case-Control Study.

  • Niaz Mustafa Kamal Department of Anesthesia, Technical College of Health, Sulaimani Polytechnic University, Sulaimani, Iraq.
  • Mardian Othman Abdul Qadir Department of Community Health, Technical College of Health, Sulaimani Polytechnic University, Sulaimani, Iraq.
  • Bestun Ibrahim Hama Rahim Department of Community Health, Sulaimani Technical Institute, Sulaimani Polytechnic University, Sulaimani, Iraq.
  • Abdulrahman M. Ibrahem General Directorate of Health in Sulaimani, Sulaimani Technical Institute, Sulaimani, Iraq.
  • Burhan Karadaghy Department of Community Health, Technical College of Health, Sulaimani Polytechnic University, Sulaimani, Iraq.
Keywords: Cancer, Children, Lymphoma, Sulaimani, Osteosarcoma

Abstract

Cancer can be defined as an abnormal growth of cells that can spread inside the body and affect many tissues and organs in different forms. It is a group of diseases that happen when abnormal cells grow and spread quickly. The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalent types of cancer and the risk factors associated with disease among children in Sulaimani city. The main part of this research was a hospital-based case-control study. The sample included 100 children aged 0-16 years (50 cases and 50 controls). The study was conducted in Sulaimani Hiwa Hospital and Pediatric Teaching Hospital from 1st January to 1st May 2018. Data on the exposed risk factors were obtained from face to face interview with the mother's cases and controls. Data was entered into Epidat version 3. Data were analyzed using STATA 11. Descriptive and percentages were used for Socio-demographic variables, odds ratios were used to determining potential risk factors, and P less and equal to 0.05 was estimated as statistically significant. The mean age of children was 46.2 (SD 42.7) months and the mean age of the mothers at the time of pregnancy was 28.4 (SD 6.7) years. Overall, there were 61 males and 39 females in the study. The commonest types were ALL (30%) while the less common types were osteosarcoma (4%). The risk factors linked to cancer were cesarean section (odds 2.7, P=0.02), family history (odds 10.8, P=0.008), mothers exposed to pesticides and chemicals during pregnancy (odds 3.0, P=0.01), (odds 6, P=0.0006) respectively, children exposed to pesticide (odds 5.4, P=0.02), exposed to passive smoke have similar odds (odds 3.0, P=0.01). Children's caffeine consumption (odds 2.3, P=0.04) and fast food (odds 3.0, P=0.01). In general, to control and prevent cancer among children, it is highlighting the need for communication and education mothers to aware about potential risk factors that lead to cancer. Furthermore, studies with larger sample size are required to determine other risk factors for cancer.

References

"Cancer," World Health Organization February 2015.

"International Childhood Cancer Day," World Health Organization, 15 February 2018.

E. R. Katz, M. J. Dolgin, and J. W. Varni, "Cancer in children and adolescents," in Handbook of clinical behavioral pediatrics, ed: Springer, 1990, pp. 129-146.

E. Steliarova-Foucher, M. Colombet, L. A. G. Ries, F. Moreno, A. Dolya, F. Bray, et al.,"International incidence of childhood cancer, 2001–10: a population-based registry study," The Lancet Oncology, vol. 18, pp. 719-731, 2017.

N. R. Council, Childhood cancer survivorship: improving care and quality of life: National Academies Press, 2003.

J. G. Gurney, M. A. Smith, and J. A. Ross, "Cancer among infants," Cancer incidence and survival among children and adolescents: United States SEER Program, vol. 1995, pp. 149-56, 1975.

M. Hawkins, E. Lancashire, D. Winter, C. Frobisher, R. Reulen, A. Taylor, et al., "The British Childhood Cancer Survivor Study: Objectives, methods, population structure, response rates and initial descriptive information," Pediatric blood & cancer, vol. 50, pp. 1018-1025, 2008.

in Childhood Cancer Survivorship: Improving Care and Quality of Life, M. Hewitt, S. L. Weiner, and J. V. Simone, Eds., ed Washington DC: 2003 by the National Academy of Sciences, 2003.

S. E. Lipshultz, S. R. Lipsitz, S. M. Mone, A. M. Goorin, S. E. Sallan, S. P. Sanders, et al., "Female sex and higher drug dose as risk factors for late cardiotoxic effects of doxorubicin therapy for childhood cancer," N Engl J Med, vol. 332, pp. 1738-43, Jun 29, 1995.

M. C. Turner, D. T. Wigle, and D. Krewski, "Residential Pesticides and Childhood Leukemia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis," Environ Health Perspect, vol. 118, pp. 33-41, Jan 2010.

M. C. Turner, D. T. Wigle, and D. Krewski, "Residential pesticides and childhood leukemia: a systematic review and meta-analysis," Cien Saude Colet, vol. 16, pp. 1915-31, Mar 2011.

L. Arab, "Epidemiologic evidence on coffee and cancer," Nutrition and cancer, vol. 62, pp. 271-283, 2010.

M. A. Crocq, "Alcohol, nicotine, caffeine, and mental disorders," Dialogues Clin Neurosci, vol. 5, pp. 175-85, Jun 2003.

W. L. Hsu, D. L. Preston, M. Soda, H. Sugiyama, S. Funamoto, K. Kodama, et al., "The incidence of leukemia, lymphoma and multiple myeloma among atomic bomb survivors: 1950-2001," Radiat Res, vol. 179, pp. 361-82, Mar 2013.

L. D. Botto, T. Flood, J. Little, M. N. Fluchel, S. Krikov, M. L. Feldkamp, et al., "Cancer Risk in Children and Adolescents with Birth Defects: A Population-Based Cohort Study," PLoS One, vol. 8, 2013.

J. R. Harris, P. K. Brown, C. Steven, K. Wilson, M. E. Fernandez, J. R. Hebert, et al., "The Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network," Prev Chronic Dis, vol. 2, Jan 2005.

M. Moshki and M. Darabian, "Epidemiology of Childhood Cancer in Northeast of Iran," Iran J Ped Hematol Oncol Vol, vol. 7, pp. 9-15.

M. Ghasemi, H. Karami, S. Abedian-Kenari, and S. Kianifar, "Patterns of cancer in the children admitted in Avicenna hospital in Sari, Iran, between 2001 and 2010," International Journal of Hematology-Oncology and Stem Cell Research, vol. 5, pp. 29-33, 2011.

H. Boroumand, M. Moshk, A. Khajavi, M. Darabian, and H. Hashemizadeh, "Epidemiology of Childhood Cancer in Northeast of Iran," Iranian Journal of Pediatric Hematology & Oncology, vol. 7, 2017.

R. Arora, T. Eden, and G. Kapoor, "Epidemiology of childhood cancer in India," Indian journal of cancer, vol. 46, p. 264, 2009.

N. Momen, J. Olsen, M. Gissler, S. Cnattingius, and J. Li, "Delivery by cesarean section and childhood cancer: a nationwide follow‐up study in three countries," BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, vol. 121, pp. 1343-1350, 2014.

B. Källén, O. Finnström, A. Lindam, E. Nilsson, K.-G. Nygren, and P. O. Olausson, "Cancer Risk in Children and Young Adults Conceived by In Vitro Fertilization," Pediatrics, vol. 126, pp. 270-276, 2010.

P. Reynolds, J. V. Behren, and E. P. Elkin, "Birth Characteristics and Leukemia in Young Children," American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 155, pp. 603-613, 2002.

R. R. Kuijten, S. S. Strom, L. B. Rorke, C. P. Boesel, J. D. Buckley, A. T. Meadows, et al., "Family history of cancer and seizures in young children with brain tumors: a report from the Children's Cancer Group (the United States and Canada)," Cancer Causes & Control, vol. 4, pp. 455-464, September 01 1993.

L. D. Botto, T. Flood, J. Little, M. N. Fluchel, S. Krikov, M. L. Feldkamp, et al.,

"Cancer risk in children and adolescents with birth defects: a population-based cohort study," PLoS One, vol. 8, p. e69077, 2013.

N. Kamal, N. Othman, and A. Salih, "Incidence and Types of Congenital Heart Diseases among Children in Sulaimani Governorate," Kurdistan Journal of Applied Research, vol. 2, pp. 106-111, 2017.

T. Fiolet, B. Srour, L. Sellem, E. Kesse-Guyot, B. Alles, C. Mejean, et al., "Consumption of ultra-processed foods and cancer risk: results from NutriNet-Sante prospective cohort," BMJ, vol. 360, p. k322, Feb 14, 2018.

K. Asomaning, D. P. Miller, G. Liu, J. C. Wain, T. J. Lynch, L. Su, et al., "Second-hand smoke, the age of exposure and lung cancer risk," Lung Cancer, vol. 61, pp. 13-20, 2008.

B.-T. Ji, X.-O. Shu, W. Zheng, D.-M. Ying, M. S. Linet, S. Wacholder, et al., "Paternal Cigarette Smoking and the Risk of Childhood Cancer Among Offspring of Nonsmoking Mothers," JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 89, pp. 238-243, 1997.

S. H. Zahm and M. H. Ward, "Pesticides and childhood cancer," Environmental health perspectives, vol. 106, p. 893, 1998.

E. Gold, L. Gordis, J. Tonascia, and M. Szklo, "RISK FACTORS FOR BRAIN TUMORS IN CHILDREN," American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 109, pp. 309-319, 1979.

E. Milne, J. A. Royle, L. C. Bennett, N. H. De Klerk, H. D. Bailey, C. Bower, et al., "Maternal consumption of coffee and tea during pregnancy and risk of childhood ALL: results from an Australian case-control study," Cancer Causes & Control, vol. 22, pp. 207-218, 2011.

L. B. Bailey, G. C. Rampersaud, and G. P. A. Kauwell, "Folic Acid Supplements and Fortification Affect the Risk for Neural Tube Defects, Vascular Disease, and Cancer: Evolving Science," The Journal of Nutrition, vol. 133, pp. 1961S-1968S, 2003.

E. B. Harvey, J. D. Boice, M. Honeyman, and J. T. Flannery, "Prenatal X-Ray Exposure and Childhood Cancer in Twins," New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 312, pp. 541-545, 1985.

Published
2019-05-13
How to Cite
1.
Mustafa Kamal N, Othman Abdul Qadir M, Ibrahim Hama Rahim B, M. Ibrahem A, Karadaghy B. Epidemiology and Risk Factors of Cancer Among Children and Adolescents in Sulaimani City: A Case-Control Study. Acta Med Iran. 57(3):184-193.
Section
Articles