Menstrual Irregularities and Related Plasma Hormone Levels in Multiple Sclerosis Patients Treated with Beta Interferone
Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of central nervous system.Women are more susceptible to this disease. One of the obvious clinical complaints in women with multiple sclerosis specially treated with Beta Interferones is menstrual cycle irregularity. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of menstrual irregularities and probable changes in blood levels of related hormones (FSH, LH, PRL, TSH, T4, T3) in 58 females with definite MS treated with beta interferones versus 58 healthy women. In comparison to the control group, the patients had higher prevalence of irregular menstruation (P=0.001), oligomenorrhea (p=0.03), abnormal amount of menstrual blood flow (P=0.001), abnormal duration of menstrual flow (P=0.01) and missed period (P=0.04). Mean LH level in patients group was higher than control group (P=0.04).Hyperprolactinemia (>25.5ng/ml) was more prevalent in patients group .There were not a significant difference in plasma levels of FSH and thyroid hormones between two groups. There were some relations between the type of Beta interferones and the subtype of menstrual irregularities in the patients. In conclusion, the results of this study emphasized the high rate of menstrual problem and changes of related plasma hormone levels in MS patients.
Ropper AH, Brown RH. Multiple sclerosis and allied demyelinative diseases. In: Ropper AH, Brown RH, editors. Adams and Victor's Principles of Neurology, 8th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2005. p. 902-28.
Sadiq SA, Miller JR. Multiple sclerosis. In: Rowland. LP, editor. Merritt's Textbook of Neurology. 9th ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins; 1995. p. 773-92.
Zych-Twardowska E, Wajgt A. Serum prolactin and sex hormone concentrations in patients with multiple sclerosis. Med Sci Monit 1999;5(2):216-20.
Zych-Twardowska E, Wajgt A. Blood levels of selected hormones in patients with multiple sclerosis. Med Sci Monit 2001;7(5):1005-12.
Cavalla P, Rovei V, Masera S, Vercellino M, Massobrio M, Mutani R, et al. Fertility in patients with multiple sclerosis: current knowledge and future perspectives. Neurol Sci 2006;27(4):231-9.
Grinsted L, Heltberg A, Hagen C, Djursing H. Serum sex hormone and gonadotropin concentrations in premenopausal women with multiple sclerosis. J Intern Med 1989;226(4):241-4.
Miyamoto T, Miyamoto M, Yokota N, Kubo J, Hirata K. A case of multiple sclerosis with hypothalamic amenorrhea. Rinsho Shinkeigaku 2000;40(3):263-7.
Tanaka M, Suzuki T, Endo K, Harayama H. A case of multiple sclerosis with galactorrhea-amenorrhea syndrome. Rinsho Shinkeigaku 1997;37(6):483-6.
Davies JS, Hinds NP, Scanlon MF. Growth hormone deficiency and hypogonadism in a patient with multiple sclerosis. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 1996;44(1):117-9.
Kira J, Harada M, Yamaguchi Y, Shida N, Goto I. Hyperprolactinemia in multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Sci 1991;102(1):61-6.
Heesen C, Gold SM, Huitinga I, Reul JM. Stress and hypothalamic- pituitary-adrenal axis function in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis: a review. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2007;32(6):604-18.
Tonacchera M, Ferrarini E, Dimida A, Agretti P, De Marco G, De Servi M, et al. Gonadotrophin receptor blocking antibodies measured by the use of cell lines stably expressing human gonadotrophin receptors are not detectable in women with 46,XX premature ovarian failure. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2004;61(3):376-81.
Hansen BL, Hansen GN, Hagen C, Brodersen P. Autoantibodies against pituitary peptides in sera from patients with multiple sclerosis. J Neuroimmunol 1983;5(2):171-83.
Moller A, Hansen BL, Hansen GN, Hagen C. Autoantibodies in sera from patients with multiple sclerosis directed against antigenic determinants in pituitary growth hormoneproducing cells and in structures containing vasopressin/ oxytocin. J Neuroimmunol 1985;8(2-3):177-84.
Linssen WH, Notermans NC, Hommes OR, Rolland R. Amenorrhea after immunosuppressive treatment of multiple sclerosis. Acta Neurol Scand 1987;76(3):204-9.
Pakulski LA, DiMarco LM. Severe vaginal bleeding associated with recombinant interferon beta-1B. Ann Pharmacother 1997;31(1):50-2.
Then Bergh F, Kümpfel T, Yassouridis A, Lechner C, Holsboer F, Trenkwalder C. Acute and chronic neuroendocrine effects of interferon-beta 1a in multiple sclerosis. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2007;66(2):295-303.
Heesen C, Schulz H, Schmidt M, Gold S, Tessmer W, Schulz KH. Endocrine and cytokine responses to acute psychological stress in multiple sclerosis. Brain Behav Immun 2002;16(3):282-7.
McDonald WI, Compston A, Edan G, Goodkin D, Hartung HP, Lublin FD, et al. Recommended diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis: guidelines from the International Panel on the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. Ann Neurol 2001;50(1):121-7.
Falaschi P, Martocchia A, Proietti A, D'Urso R, Antonini G. High incidence of hyperandrogenism-related clinical signs in patients with multiple sclerosis. Neuro Endocrinol Lett 2001;22(4):248-50.
Golovkin VI, Mikhaĭlenko AA, Rakov AL. Pathogenetic role of prolactinemia in multiple sclerosis. Sov Med 1991;(10):15-7.
Klapps P, Seyfert S, Fischer T, Scherbaum WA. Endocrine function in multiple sclerosis. Acta Neurol Scand 1992;85(5):353-7.
Wei T, Lightman SL. The neuroendocrine axis in patients with multiple sclerosis. Brain 1997;120(Pt 6):1067-76.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.