Prevention of High Fructose-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Male Wistar Rats by Aqueous Extract of Tamarindus Indica Seed

  • Mohammd Reza Shahraki Mail Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran.
  • Mehdi Harati Departments of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran.
  • Ahamd Reza Shahraki Faculty of Medicine, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Member of Young Researches Club of Zahedan Azad University, Zahedan, Iran.
Keywords:
Tamarindus indica, Metabolic syndrome X, Fructose, Dihydroepitestosterone, Dyslipidemias, Rats

Abstract

Tamarindus indica is used as a traditional treatment for diabetes. To elucidate whether Tamarindus indica seed aqueous extract (TSE) ameliorates metabolic syndrome in hyperinsulinemic rats, we evaluated serum insulin, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), and glucose levels in fructose-fed rats. Animals were divided into three groups; control (C) receiving tap water, fructose-fed (F) and TSE-treated fructose-fed rats (F-T) both receiving tap water supplemented with 10% (w/v) fructose. Water was prepared every day for a period of 8 weeks for all three groups. F-T rats were fed with TSE via gavage feeding at the dose of 20 mg/0.5 ml distilled water/100 g body weight per day. Fasting serum glucose levels of three groups were comparable. TSE treatment prevented the increase in fasting serum insulin, TG, TC, VLDL, and LDL in the F-T group (P<0.01) when comparing with the F group. Fructose feeding led to a decrease in fasting serum DHEAS, and HDL levels in the F group (P<0.01) compared with the control. TSE treatment prevented the decrease in fasting serum DHEAS, and HDL levels in the F-T group (P<0.01) while these results were not seen in control rats. It is indicated that the hyperinsulinemia in fructosefed insulin resistant rats are associated with low levels of DHEAS, and HDL; and high levels of TC, VLDL, LDL, and TG. TSE supplementation probably ameliorates metabolic syndrome due to the improved insulin action.

References

Keller KB, Lemberg L. Obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Am J Crit Care 2003;12(2):167-70.

Eriksen MB, Minet AD, Glintborg D, Gaster M. Intact primary mitochondrial function in myotubes established from women with PCOS. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2011 May 18.

Avramoglu RK, Qiu W, Adeli K. Mechanisms of metabolic dyslipidemia in insulin resistant states: deregulation of hepatic and intestinal lipoprotein secretion. Front Biosci 2003;8:d464-76.

Yamaguchi Y, Tanaka S, Yamakawa T, Kimura M, Ukawa K, Yamada Y, Ishihara M, Sekihara H. Reduced serum dehydroepiandrosterone levels in diabetic patients with hyperinsulinaemia. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 1998;49(3):377-83.

Nestler JE, Clore JN, Blackard WG. Dehydroepiandrosterone: the "missing link" between hyperinsulinemia and atherosclerosis? FASEB J 1992;6(12):3073-5.

Vermeulen A. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and aging. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1995;774:121-7.

Ebeling P, Koivisto VA. Physiological importance of dehydroepiandrosterone. Lancet 1994;343(8911):1479-81.

Paolisso G, Ammendola S, Rotondi M, Gambardella A, Rizzo MR, Mazziotti G, Tagliamonte MR, Carella C, Varricchio M. Insulin resistance and advancing age: what= role for dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate? Metabolism 1997;46(11):1281-6.

Perrini S, Laviola L, Natalicchio A, Giorgino F. Associated hormonal declines in aging: DHEAS. J Endocrinol Invest 2005;28(3 Suppl):85-93.

Grover JK, Yadav S, Vats V. Medicinal plants of India with anti-diabetic potential. J Ethnopharmacol 2002;81(1):81-100.

Alarcon-Aguilara FJ, Roman-Ramos R, Perez-Gutierrez S, Aguilar-Contreras A, Contreras-Weber CC, Flores-Saenz JL. Study of the anti-hyperglycemic effect of plants used as antidiabetics. J Ethnopharmacol 1998;61(2):101-10.

Chattopadhyay RR. A comparative evaluation of some blood sugar lowering agents of plant origin. J Ethnopharmacol 1999;67(3):367-72.

Kar A, Choudhary BK, Bandyopadhyay NG. Preliminary studies on the inorganic constituents of some indigenous hypoglycaemic herbs on oral glucose tolerance test. J Ethnopharmacol 1999;64(2):179-84.

Maiti R, Jana D, Das UK, Ghosh D. Antidiabetic effect of aqueous extract of seed of Tamarindus indica in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2004;92(1):85-91.

Maiti R, Das UK, Ghosh D. Attenuation of hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by aqueous extract of seed of Tamarindus indica. Biol Pharm Bull 2005;28(7):1172-6.

Martinello F, Soares SM, Franco JJ, Santos AC, Sugohara A, Garcia SB, Curti C, Uyemura SA. Hypolipemic and antioxidant activities from Tamarindus indica L. pulp fruit extract in hypercholesterolemic hamsters. Food Chem Toxicol 2006;44(6):810-8.

Bezerra RM, Ueno M, Silva MS, Tavares DQ, Carvalho CR, Saad MJ, Gontijo JA. A high-fructose diet induces insulin resistance but not blood pressure changes in normotensive rats. Braz J Med Biol Res 2001;34(9):1155-60.

Jacobson MF. High-fructose corn syrup and the obesity epidemic. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80(4):1081; author reply1081-2.

Avramoglu RK, Basciano H, Adeli K. Lipid and lipoprotein dysregulation in insulin resistant states. Clin Chim Acta 2006;368(1-2):1-19. Epub 2006 Feb 9.

Harati M, Ani M. Vanadyl sulfate ameliorates insulin resistance and restores plasma dehydroepiandrosteronesulfate levels in fructose-fed, insulin-resistant rats. Clin Biochem 2004;37(8):694-7.

Friedewald WT, Levy RI, Fredrickson DS. Estimation of the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Clin Chem 1972;18(6):499-502.

Clore JN. Dehydroepiandrosterone and body fat. Obes Res 1995;3 Suppl 4:613S-616S.

Barrett-Connor E, Goodman-Gruen D. The epidemiology of DHEAS and cardiovascular disease. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1995;774:259-70.

Fukui M, Kitagawa Y, Nakamura N, Kadono M, Yoshida M, Hirata C, et al. Serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate concentration and carotid atherosclerosis in men with type 2 diabetes. Atherosclerosis 2005;181(2):339-44.

Cameron DR, Braunstein GD. The use of dehydroepiandrosterone therapy in clinical practice. Treat Endocrinol 2005;4(2):95-114.

Nestler JE, McClanahan MA, Clore JN, Blackard WG. Insulin inhibits adrenal 17,20-lyase activity in man. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1992;74(2):362-7.

Ueshiba H, Shimizu Y, Hiroi N, Yakushiji F, Shimojo M, Tsuboi K, Miyachi Y. Decreased steroidogenic enzyme 17,20-lyase and increased 17-hydroxylase activities in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Eur J Endocrinol 2002;146(3):375-80.

Isley WL. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol lowering in the prevention of CHD: how low should we go? Curr Treat Options Cardiovasc Med 2006;8(4):289-97.

Cutri BA, Hime NJ, Nicholls SJ. High-density lipoproteins: an emerging target in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Cell Res 2006;16(10):799-808.

Sleder J, Chen YD, Cully MD, Reaven GM. Hyperinsulinemia in fructose-induced hypertriglyceridemia in the rat. Metabolism 1980;29(4):303-5.

Taghibiglou C, Carpentier A, Van Iderstine SC, Chen B, Rudy D, Aiton A, Lewis GF, Adeli K. Mechanisms of hepatic very low-density lipoprotein overproduction in insulin resistance. J Biol Chem 2000;275(12):8416-25.

Tobey TA, Mondon CE, Zavaroni I, Reaven GM. Mechanism of insulin resistance in fructose-fed rats. Metabolism 1982;31(6):608-12.

Randle PJ. Regulatory interactions between lipids and carbohydrates: the glucose fatty acid cycle after 35 years. Diabetes Metab Rev 1998;14(4):263-83.

Haidari M, Leung N, Mahbub F, Uffelman KD, Kohen- Avramoglu R, Lewis GF, Adeli K. Fasting and postprandial overproduction of intestinally derived lipoproteins in an animal model of insulin resistance. Evidence that chronic fructose feeding in the hamster is accompanied by enhanced intestinal de novo lipogenesis and ApoB48-containing lipoprotein overproduction. J Biol Chem 2002;277(35):31646-55.

Guo Q, Avramoglu RK, Adeli K. Intestinal assembly and secretion of highly dense/lipid-poor apolipoprotein B48- containing lipoprotein particles in the fasting state: evidence for induction by insulin resistance and exogenous fatty acids. Metabolism 2005;54(5):689-97.

Parks EJ, Hellerstein MK. Carbohydrate-induced hypertriacylglycerolemia: historical perspective and review of biological mechanisms. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71(2):412-33.

Swanson JE, Laine DC, Thomas W, Bantle JP. Metabolic effects of dietary fructose in healthy subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;55(4):851-6.

How to Cite
1.
Shahraki MR, Harati M, Shahraki AR. Prevention of High Fructose-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Male Wistar Rats by Aqueous Extract of Tamarindus Indica Seed. Acta Med Iran. 49(5):277-283.
Section
Articles