Prevalence of Maternal Vitamin D Deficiency in Neonates with Delayed Hypocalcaemia
Maternal vitamin D deficiency is one of the major risk factors for neonatal vitamin D deficiency followed by neonatal hypocalcaemia. The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between delayed neonatal hypocalcaemia and maternal vitamin D deficiency. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study. Target population of this study included all term and preterm neonates with delayed hypocalcaemia (after the first 72 hours of birth) admitted to Ali-Asghar Hospital. The sample size was 100 neonates included in the study. Demographic, clinical and paraclinical data including Ca, P, PTH and level of maternal and neonatal vitamin D were recorded according to patients records. 67 neonates (67%) were term and 33(33%) were preterm neonates. The mean of serum calcium in neonates was 6.49± 0.68mg/dL (in the range of 4.3-7.8 mg/dL). 85% of neonates and 74% of mothers had vitamin D deficiency. 100% of neonates born to mothers with vitamin D deficiency were hypocalcaemia. A statistically significant difference was seen between the mean values of serum Ca (6.67 in term vs. 6.12 in preterm neonates) and vitamin D in term and preterm neonates was 16.34 vs. 20.18 (P= 0.0001 and P=0.01 respectively). Also, a significant correlation was seen between maternal and neonatal level of vitamin D (P=0.0001, r=0.789). With regard to the socio-cultural status in Iran besides women's clothing style and nutritional deficiencies before and during pregnancy, health authorities and policy makers are responsible to focus their serious attention on hypocalcaemia and hypovitaminosis D in neonates.
Rigo J, Mohamed W.M, Curtis MDE. Disorders of calcium/phosphor/magnesium metabolism. IN: Martin R, Fanaroff A, Walsh M, Editors. Fanaroff and Martins Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine: Disease of the Fetus and Infant, Vol 2, 9th ed. Elsevier Mosby, 2011, 1523-56.
Greenbaum LA. Pathophysiology of body fluids and electrolytes, IN: Behrman RE, kliegman RM, Jenson HB, editors. Nelson Textbook of pediatrics, 18th ed. New York: Elsevier, 2007, 267-91.
Kovacs CS. Vitamin D in pregnancy and lactation: maternal, fatal and neonatal outcomes from human and animal studies. Am J Clin Nutr 2008; 88(2):520S-8S.
Teaema FH, Al Ansari K. Nineteen cases of symptomatic neonatal hypocalcemia secondary to vitamin D deficiency:A 2-year study. J Trop Pediatr 2010; 56(2):108-10.
Behjati Sh, Anjarani S, Rastegar H. The Study of Prevalence Neonatal Hypocalcaemia. Iran J Pediatr 2003; 13(2):141-6.
Mehrotra P, Marwaha RK, Aneja S, Seth A, Singla BM, Ashraf G, Sharma B, Sastry A, Tandon N. Hypovitaminosis D and hypocalcemic seizure in infancy. Indian Pediatr 2010; 47(7):581-6.
Pehlivan I, Hatun S, Aydogan M, Babaoglu K, Goklap AS. Maternal vitamin D deficiency and vitamin D supplementation in healthy infants. Turk J Pediatr 2003; 45(4): 315-20.
Atiq M, Suria A, Nizami SQ, Ahmed I. Maternal vitamin- D deficiency in Pakistan. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1998; 77(10):970-3.
Dijkstra SH, van Beek A, Janssen JW, de Vleeschouwer LHM, Huysman WA, van den Akker EL. High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in newborn infants of high-risk mothers. Arch Dis Child 2007; 92(9):750-3.
Eghbalian F.The study of early neonatal hypocalcemia in the educational hospitals of Hamadan university of medical sciences. Scientific Journal of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences 2004; 11(3 (SN 33)):48-52.
Ladhani S, Srinivasan L, Buchanan C, Allgrove J. Presentation of vitamin D deficiency. Arch Dis Child 2004; 89:781-4.
Wielders JP, van Dormael PD, Eskes PF, Duk MJ. Severe vitamin-D deficiency in more than half of the immigrant pregnant women of non-western origin and their newborns. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 2006; 150: 495-9.
Wagner CL, Greer FR. Prevention of rickets and vitamin D deficiency in infants, children and adolescent. Pediatrics 2008; 122: 1142-52.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.