Correlation between the Age of Smoking Initiation and Maintaining Continuous Abstinence for 5 Years After Quitting

  • Ali Abdolahinia Iranian Traditional Medicine, Clinical Trial Research Center, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran. AND Research Unit, Iranian Anti Tobacco Association, Tehran, Iran.
  • Makan Sadr Tracheal Diseases Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
  • Zahra Hessami Mail Tobacco Prevention and Control Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Initiation of smoking, Relapse, Smoking cessation


Many factors affect tobacco quit rate. In this study we investigated the abstinence rate after 5 years based on the age of smoking initiation. This pre-post field trial study was conducted on 398 smokers who participated voluntarily in a smoking cessation clinic in 2005. They were followed for 5 years and their success or failure in continuous abstinence was evaluated and recorded in 2010. Three hundred and five participants (76.6%) succeeded at the end of the course. Follow up at the end of 2010 revealed that 111 (27.8%) cases were still maintaining their continuous abstinence after 5 years including 64 men and 47 women. The mean age of smoking initiation in successful and failed subjects was 21.9 and 20.7 years respectively. The age of smoking initiation could be a predictor of maintaining abstinence in the future. Starting smoking at an earlier age could have a negative effect on long-term abstinence.


The Health Consequences of Smoking: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta(GA): Center for Disease Controland Prevention, 2004.

Mathers CD, Loncar D. Projections of global mortality andburden of disease from 2002 to 2030. PLoS Med 2006; 3(11): e442.

Meysamie, A, Ghaletaki, R, Haghazali, M, Asgari, F, Rashidi, A,Khalilizadeh, O, Esteghamati, A, Abbasi, M (2012). Pattern of tobacco use among the Iranian adult population: results of the national survey of risk factors ofnon-communicable diseases (SuRFNCD-2007). TobControl 2010 19(2): 125-128

Lam TH, Li ZB, Ho SY, Chan WM, Ho KS, Tham MK, Cowling BJ, Schooling CM, Leung GM. Smoking, quitting and mortality in an elderly cohort of 56,000 Hong Kong Chinese. Tob Control 2007; 16(3):182-9.

E, Campbell J, Tønnsen P, Gustavsson G, Morera J.Sociodemographic predictors of success in smoking intervention.Tob Control 2001; 10(2):165–9.

Freund KM,D’Agostino RB, Belanger AJ, Kannel WB, StokesJ 3rd. Predictors of smoking cessation: The Framinghamstudy. Am J Epidemiol 1992; 135(9):957-64.

van Loon AJ, Tijhuis M, Surtees PG, Ormel J. Determinants of smoking status: cross-sectional data on smoking initiation and cessationEuropean Journal of Public Health 2005; 15(3):256-61.

Patton GC, Coffey C, Carlin JB, Sawyer SM, Wakefield M. Teen smokers reach their mid twenties. J Adolesc Health 2006; 39(2):214-20.

Chassin L, Presson CC, Sherman SJ, Edwards DA. The natural history of cigarette smoking: predicting youngadult smoking outcomes from adolescent smoking patterns. Health Psychol 1990; 9(6):701-16.

Khuder SA, Dayal HH, Mutgi AB. Age at smoking onset and its effect on smoking cessation. Addict Behav 1999; 24(5):673-7.

American Legacy Foundation. 2000. National Youth Tobacco Survey. 2001

Kelishadi R, Ardalan G, Gheiratmand R, Majdzadeh R, Delavari A, Heshmat R, Mokhtari MR, Razaghi EM, Motaghian M, Ahangar-Nazari I, Mahmood-Arabi MS, Barekati H; CASPIAN Study Group. Smoking behavior and its influencing factors in a national-representative sample of Iranian adolescents: CASPIAN study. Prev Med 2006; 42(6):423-6.

Newcomb MD, Maddahian E, Bentler PM. Risk factors for drug use among adolescents: concurrent and longitudinal analyses. Am J Public Health 1986; 76(5):525-31.

Rondina RC, Gorayeb R, Botelho C. Psychological characteristics associated with tobacco smoking behavior. J Bras Pneumol 2007; 33(5):592-601.

Morimoto A, Miyamatsu N, Okamura T, Hozawa A, Kadota A, Morinaga M, Ogita M, Kashiwagi A, Ueshima H. What psychosocial characteristics are associated with smoking cessation behavior and readiness to quit smoking among Japanese male ever-smokers with type 2 diabetes mellitus? J Atheroscler Thromb 2010; 17(4):361-8.

Fagerstrom KO. Measuring degree of physical dependence to tobacco smokig with reference to individualization of treatment. Addict Behav 1978; 3(3-4):235-41.

Flores Mateo G, Morchón Ramos S, Masuet Aumatell C, Carrillo Santisteve P, Manchón Walsh P, Ramon Torrell JM. Age of Smoking Initiation as Predictor in Smoking

Cessation. Aten Primaria 2005; 35(9):466-71.

Broms U, Silventoinen K, Lahelma E, Koskenvuo M, Kaprio J. Smoking cessation by socioeconomic status and marital status: The contribution of smoking behavior andfamily background. Nicotine Tob Res 2004; 6(3):447-55.

Ellickson PL, McGuigan KA, Klein DJ. Predictors of lateonset smoking and cessation over 10 years. J Adolesc Health 2001; 29(2):101-8.

Boutou AK, Tsiata EA, Pataka A, Kontou PK, Pitsiou GG, Argyropoulou P. Smoking cessation in clinical practice: predictors of six-month continuous abstinence in a sample of Greek smokers. Prim Care Respir J 2008; 17(1):32-8.

Hymowitz N, Sexton M, Ockene J, Grandits G. Baseline factors associated with smoking cessation and relapse. MRFIT Research Group. Prev Med 1991; 20(5):590-601.

How to Cite
Abdolahinia A, Sadr M, Hessami Z. Correlation between the Age of Smoking Initiation and Maintaining Continuous Abstinence for 5 Years After Quitting. Acta Med Iran. 50(11):755-759.