Do Pilea Microphylla Improve Sperm DNA Fragmentation and Sperm Parameters in Varicocelized Rats?
Varicocele is one of the most common causes of primary male infertility. Pilea microphylla (PM) is being used as folk medicine. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of PM in a rat model of varicocele. A total of 30 male Wistar rats were divided into control, sham, varicocele, accessory varicocele and PM-treated groups. After 10 weeks of varicocele induction, sperm parameters and chromatin (Aniline blue, acridine orange and toluidine blue) were evaluated, except for the treated and accessory groups that received 50 mg/kg PM orally daily for 10 weeks and then were sacrificed. Sperm parameters significantly decreased in varicocele groups (P < 0.01). Moreover, there was a negative correlation between the DNA fragmentation and sperm parameters in varicocelized rats. Administration of PM led to significantly increased sperm parameters and AO staining (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that PM improves sperm parameters and DNA fragmentation in varicocelized rats. PM can reduce the damage to sperm DNA but not chromatin condensation.
Organization WH. Report of the Meeting on the Prevention of Infertility at the Primary Health Care Level, 12-16 December 1983, Geneva. (Accessed on April 10, 2015, at http://www.popline.org/node/408739).
Saypol DC, Howards SS, Turner TT, et al. Influence of surgically induced varicocele on testicular blood flow, temperature, and histology in adult rats and dogs. J Clin Invest 1981;68(1):39-45.
Agarwal A, Sharma RK, Desai NR, et al. Role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of varicocele and infertility. Urology 2009;73(3):461-9.
Koksal IT, Tefekli A, Usta M, et al. The role of reactive oxygen species in testicular dysfunction associated with varicocele. BJU Int 2000;86(4):549-52.
Turner TT, Lysiak JJ. Oxidative stress: a common factor in testicular dysfunction. J Androl 2008;29(5):488-98.
Evers JL, Collins JA. Assessment of efficacy of varicocele repair for male subfertility: a systematic review. Lancet 2003;361(9372):1849-52.
Will MA, Swain J, Fode M, et al. The great debate: varicocele treatment and impact on fertility. Fertil Steril 2011;95(3):841-52.
Hendin BN, Kolettis PN, Sharma RK, et al. Varicocele is associated with elevated spermatozoal reactive oxygen species production and diminished seminal plasma antioxidant capacity. J Urol 1999;161(6):1831-4.
Agarwal A, Makker K, Sharma R. Clinical relevance of oxidative stress in male factor infertility: an update. Am J Reprod Immunol 2008;59(1):2-11.
Saleh RA, Agarwal A, Sharma RK, et al. Evaluation of nuclear DNA damage in spermatozoa from infertile men with varicocele. Fertil Steril 2003;80(6):1431-6.
Talebi AR, Moein MR, Tabibnejad N, et al. Effect of varicocele on chromatin condensation and DNA integrity of ejaculated spermatozoa using cytochemical tests. Andrologia 2008;40(4):245-51.
Sakkas D, Moffatt O, Manicardi GC, et al. Nature of DNA damage in ejaculated human spermatozoa and the possible involvement of apoptosis. Biol Reprod 2002;66(4):1061-7.
Saleh RA, Agarwal A, Kandirali E, et al. Leukocytospermia is associated with increased reactive oxygen species production by human spermatozoa. Fertil Steril 2003;78(6):1215-24.
Gomez E, Irvine D, Aitken R. Evaluation of a spectrophotometric assay for the measurement of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxy-alkenals in human spermatozoa: Relationships with semen quality and sperm function. Int J Androl 1998;21(2):81-94.
Iwasaki A, Gagnon C. Formation of reactive oxygen species in spermatozoa of infertile patients. Fertil Steril 1992;57(2):409-16.
de Lamirande E, Gagnon C. Reactive oxygen species and human spermatozoa. I. Effects on the motility of intact spermatozoa and on sperm axonemes. J Androl 1992a;13(5):368-78.
MacLeod J. Seminal cytology in the presence of varicocele. Fertil Steril 1965;16(6): 735-57.
Sikka SC. Oxidative stress and role of antioxidants in normal and abnormal sperm function. Front Biosci 1996;1:e78-86.
Lopes S, Jurisicova A, Sun JG, et al. Reactive oxygen species: potential cause for DNA fragmentation in human spermatozoa. Hum Reprod 1998;13(4):896-900.
Modarresi Chahardehi A, Ibrahim D, Fariza Sulaiman S. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial Activity and Toxicity Test of Pilea microphylla. Int J Microbiol 2010;2010:826830.
Cocuzza M, Sikka SC, Athayde KS, et al. Clinical relevance of oxidative stress and sperm chromatin damage in male infertility: an evidence based analysis. Int Braz J Urol 2007;33(5):603-21.
Tsarev I, Bungum M, Giwercman A, et al. Evaluation of male fertility potential by Toluidine Blue test for sperm chromatin structure assessment. Hum Reprod 2009;1(1):1-6.
Erenpreisa J, Erenpreiss J, Freivalds T, et al. Toluidine blue test for sperm DNA integrity and elaboration of image cytometry algorithm. Cytometry A 2003;52(1):19-27.
Oliva A, Dotta A, Multigner L. Pentoxifylline and antioxidants improve sperm quality in male patients with varicocele. Fertil Steril 2009;91(4 Suppl):1536-9.
Bahmanzadeh M, Abolhassani F, Amidi F, et al. The effects of nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (L-NAME) on epididymal sperm count, motility, and morphology in varicocelized rat. DARU 2008;16(1):23-8.
Alizadeh N, Abbasi M, Abolhassani F, et al. Effects of aminoguanidine on infertile varicocelized rats: A functional and morphological study. Daru 2010;18(1):51-6.
Abbasi M, Alizadeh R, Abolhassani F, et al. Effect of Aminoguanidine in Sperm DNA Fragmentation In Varicocelized Rats Role of Nitric Oxide. Reprod Scim2011;18(6):545-50.
Abbasi M, Alizadeh R, Abolhassani F, et al. Aminoguanidine Improves Epididymal Sperm Parameters in Varicocelized Rats. Urol Int 2011;86(3):302-6.
Lans CA. Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2006 Oct 13;2:45.
Facey PC, Pascoe KO, Porter R, et al. Investigation of Plants used in Jamaican Folk Medicine for Antibacterial Activity. J Pharm Pharmacol 1999;51(12):1455-60.
Turner TT. The study of varicocele through the use of animal models. Hum Reprod Update 2001;7(1):78-84.
Seed J, Chapin RE, Clegg ED, et al. Methods for assessing sperm motility, morphology, and counts in the rat, rabbit, and dog: a consensus report. ILSI Risk Science Institute Expert Working Group on Sperm Evaluation. Reprod Toxicol 1996;10(3):237-44.
Ozdamar AS, Soylu AG, Culha M, et al. Testicular oxidative stress. Effects of experimental varicocele in adolescent rats. Urol Int 2004;73(4):343-7.
Narayana K, Prashanthi N, Nayanatara A, et al. Effects of methyl parathion (o,o-dimethyl o-4-nitrophenyl phosphorothioate) on rat sperm morphology and sperm count, but not fertility, are associated with decreased ascorbic acid level in the testis. Mutat Res 2005;588(1):28-34.
Bjorndahl L, Soderlund I, Kvist U. Evaluation of the onestep eosin-nigrosin staining technique for human sperm vitality assessment. Hum Reprod 2003;18(4):813-6.
Kisa U, Basar MM, Ferhat M, et al. Testicular tissue nitric oxide and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance levels: evaluation with respect to the pathogenesis of varicocele. Urol Res 2004;32(3):196-9.
Hammadeh ME, Al-Hasani S, Stieber M, et al. The effect of chromatin condensation (Aniline Blue staining) and morphology (strict criteria) of human spermatozoa on fertilization, cleavage and pregnancy rates in an intracytoplasmic sperm injection programme . Hum Reprod Update 1996;11(11):2468-71.
Chohan KR, Griffin JT, Carrell DT. Evaluation of chromatin integrity in human sperm using acridine orange staining with different fixatives and after cryopreservation. Andrologia 2004;36(5):321-6.
Tejada RI, Mitchell JC, Norman A, et al. A test for the practical evaluation of male fertility by acridine orange (AO) fluorescence. Fertil Steril 1984;42(1):87-91.
Virant-Klun I, Tomazevic T, Meden-Vrtovec H. Sperm single-stranded DNA, detected by acridine orange staining, reduces fertilization and quality of ICSI-derived embryos. J Assist Reprod Genet 2002;19(7):319-28.
Marmar JL. Varicocele and male infertility: Part II: The pathophysiology of varicoceles in the light of current molecular and genetic information. Hum Repord Update 2001;7(5):461-72.
Barqawi A, Caruso A, Meacham RB. Experimental varicocele induces testicular germ cell apoptosis in the rat. J Urol 2004;171(1):501-3.
Hauser R, Paz G, Botchan A, et al. Varicocele: effect on sperm functions. Hum Reprod Update 2001;7(5):482-5.
Amiri I, Sheike N, Najafi R. Nitric oxide level in seminal plasma of fertile and infertile males and its correlation with sperm parameters. DARU 2006;14(4):197-202.
Turker Koksal I, Erdogru T, Gulkesen H, et al. The potential role of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) Do pilea microphylla improve sperm parameters? varicocele: an experimental study. Int Urol Nephrol 2004;36(1):67-72.
Ozbek E, Turkoz Y, Gokdeniz R, et al. Increased nitric oxide production in the spermatic vein of patients with varicocele. Eur Urol 2000;37(2):172-5.
Tanrikut C, Goldstein M, Rosoff JS, et al. Varicocele as a risk factor for androgen deficiency and effect of repair. BJU int 2011;108(9):1480-4.
Jarow JP. Effects of varicocele on male fertility. Hum Reprod Update 2001;7(1):59-64.
Agarwal A, Prabakaran S, Allamaneni SS. Relationship between oxidative stress, varicocele and infertility: a metaanalysis. Reprod Biomed Online 2006;12(5):630-3.
Simşek F, Türkeri L, Cevik I, et al. Role of apoptosis in testicular tissue damage caused by varicocele. Arch Esp Urol 1998;51(9):947-50.
Enciso M, Muriel L, Fernandez JL, et al. Infertile men with varicocele show a high relative proportion of sperm cells with intense nuclear damage level, evidenced by the sperm chromatin dispersion test. J Androl 2006;27(1):106-11.
Bertolla RP, Cedenho AP, Hassun Filho PA, et al. Sperm= nuclear DNA fragmentation in adolescents with varicocele. Fertil Steril 2006;85(3):625-8.
Smith R, Kaune H, Parodi D, et al. Increased sperm DNA damage in patients with varicocele: relationship with seminal oxidative stress. Hum Reprod 2006;21(4):986-93.
Agarwal A, Said TM. Role of sperm chromatin abnormalities and DNA damage in male infertility. Hum Reprod Update 2003;9(4):331-45.
Cocuzza M, Athayde KS, Agarwal A, et al. Impact of clinical varicocele and testis size on seminal reactive oxygen species levels in a fertile population: a prospective controlled study. Fertil Steril 2008;90(4):1103-8.
Sakkas D, Mariethoz E, Manicardi G, et al. Origin of DNA damage in ejaculated human spermatozoa. Rev Reprod 1999;4(1):31-7.
Twigg J, Fulton N, Gomez E, et al. Analysis of the impact of intracellular reactive oxygen species generation on the structural and functional integrity of human spermatozoa: lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation and effectiveness of antioxidants. Hum Reprod 1998;13(6):1429-36.
Chen C-H, Lee S-S, Chen D-C, et al. Apoptosis and kinematics of ejaculated spermatozoa in patients with varicocele. J Androl 2004;25(3):348-53.
Baccetti B, Bernieri G, Burrini AG, et al. Notulae seminologicae. 4. Mathematical evaluation of submicroscopical alterations in spermatozoa of sterile men with varicocele. Andrologia 1995;27(1):13-7.
Vakili A, Nekooeian A, Dehghani GA. Aminoguanidine reduces infarct volume and improves neurological dysfunction in transient model of focal cerebral ischemia in rat. DARU 2006;14(1):31-6.
Cavallini G, Ferraretti AP, Gianaroli L, et al. Cinnoxicam and L-carnitine/acetyl-L-carnitine treatment for idiopathic and varicocele-associated oligoasthenospermia. J Androl 2004;25(5):761-70; discussion 771-2.
|Issue||Vol 53, No 9 (2015)|
|Varicocele Pilea microphylla Sperm parameters Sperm chromatin Sperm DNA fragmentation Rat|
|Rights and permissions|
|This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.|