Skin Protective Behavior Amongst Girl Students; Based on Health Belief Model
Skin cancer is the most prevalent type of cancer in most of the countries and more than 90% of cancer cases are related to ultra violet rays of the sun. Therefore protective behaviors against sunlight are considered the most essential measures for skin cancer prevention. This study has been conducted to determine the frequency of protective behavior against sunlight among female students of Tehran city high schools. The Health Belief Model has been used for this cross-sectional study to analyze the factors related to protective behaviors. A multi-phase sampling method was used. 941 female student of Tehran city high schools were studied using a probed question form. The data were then analyzed using SPSS software. During the study of protective behaviors against the sunlight, 24.7% of participants mentioned that they always use sunscreen. The behavior of using sunscreen is related to perceived sensitivity, severity and benefit amongst the students (P<0.05). Also 3.8% of the students who participated in our study were always using gloves in summer to protect against sunlight. The behavior of using gloves in summer was also related to perceived sensitivity, severity and benefit (P<0.05). Physicians were the most effective influencing people with 84.9% influence on the appropriate decision making by these students. There is a low frequency of protective behavior against sunlight among the female students of Tehran city high schools. These findings show the necessity of training the students in this regard and promote the protective behaviors amongst them.
Lopez AD, Mathers CD, Ezzati M, Jamison DT, Murray CJL. Measuring the Global Burden of Disease and Risk Factors, 1990–2001. Washington (DC): World Bank2006.
Benvenuto-Andrade C, Zen B, Fonseca G, De Villa D. Cestari T. Sun exposure and sun protection habits among high-school adolescents in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Photochem Photobio 2005;81(3):630-5.
Stock ML, Gerrard M, Gibbons FX, Dykstra JL, Mahler HIM, Walsh L, Kulik JA. Sun protection intervention for highway workers: long-term efficacy of UV photography and skin cancer information on men's protective cognitions and behavior. Ann Behav Med2009;38(3):225-36.
Livingston P,White V,Hayman J, Dobbinson S. Australian adolescents sun protection behavior :Who are we kidding ?.Prev Med 2007; 44 (6):508-512
Montague M, Borland R, Sinclair c. Slip! Slop! Slap! and sun smart, 1980-2000: Skin cancer control and 20 years of population–based campaigning. High Edue Behav 2001;28(3):290-305.
Dadlani C, Orlow SJ. Planning for a brighter future: Areview of sun protection and barriers to behavioral change in children and adolescents. Dermatol Online Jn 2008;14(9):1.
Stanson WR, Janda M, Baade PD, Anderson P. Primary prevention of skin cancer: a review of sun protection in Australia and internationally. Health Promot Int 2004;19(3):369-378.
Mahler HI, Kulik JA, Butler HA, Gerrard M, Gibbons FX. Social norms information enhances the efficacy of an appearance-based sun protection intervention. Soc Sic Med 2008; 67(2);321-9.
Janz NK, Becker MH. The Health Belief Model: a decade later. Health Educ Q 1984;11(1):1-47.
Maiman LA, Becker MH. The Health Belief Model: originand correlates in psychological theory. Health Educ Monogr 1974;2(3):336-53
Cokkinides VE, Johnston- Davis K, et al. Sun exposure and Sun protection behaviors and attitudes among USyouth, 11 to 18 years of age. Prev Med 2001;33(3):141-51.
Richrads R, McGee R, Knight RG. Sunburn and sun protection among New zeland adolescents over a summer weekend. Aust NZJ Public- Health 2001;25(4):352-4.
Branstrom R, Brandberg Y, Holm L. Beliefs, knowledge and attitudes as predictors of sunbathing habits and use of sun protection among Swedish adolescents. Eur J Cancer Prev 2001;10(4):337-45.
Livingston PM, White VM, Uogoni AM, Borland R. knowledge, attitudes and self- care practices Related to sun- protection among secondary students in Australia. health Educ Res 2001;16(3):269-78.
Johnson K, Davy T, Boyett T, Weathers L, Roetzheim RG. Sun protection practices for children: know ledge, attitudes and parent behaviors. Arch pediatr Adolesc Med 2001;155(8):891-6.
Devos SA,Baeyens K,Van hecke L.Sun screen use andskin protection behavior on the Belgian beach. Int J Dermatol 2003;42(5):352-6.
Dalli D, Ogce F, Okcin FA. Knowledge of the effects of sun exposure of Turkish high school students and their sun bathing habits. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2004;5(4):366-9.
Jones B ,Corkery E,Hanley R, Eqan CA. Attitudes and Perceptions regarding skin cancer and sun protection behavior in an Irish population. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2007;21 (8):1097-101
Molgó MN, Castillo C, Valdés FR, Romero GW, Jeanneret MV, Cevo ET, Torres MC, Silva PP, Flores SL, Riquelme CA, Ayala RMF, González VF, Hasbún ZMT, Baladrón ZMJ. Sun exposure behaviors and knowledge among Chileans. Rev Med Chile 2005;133(6):662-6.
Aquilina S, Gauci A, Ellul M, Scerri L. Sun awareness in maltese secondary school students. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2004;18(6):870-75.
Su L. Sun awareness at Mayo high school. Cutis 1997; 60 (3):155-7.
Scerii L, Aqulina S,Amato GA, Dalmas M. Sun awareness and sun protection practices in Malta. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2002;16 (1):47-52.
Robinson JK, Rigel DS, Amonette RA. Trends in sun exposure knowledge, attitude and behaviors: 1986 to 1996. J Am Acad Dermantol 1997;37(2pt):179-86.
Cokkinides VE, Johnston-Davis K, Weinstock M, O'Connell MC, Kalsbeek W, Thun MJ, Wingo PA. Sun exposure and sun-protection behaviors and attitudes among U.S. youth, 11 to 18 years of age. Prev Med 2001;33(3):141-51.
Nikolaou V, Stratigos AJ, Antoniou C, Sypsa V, Avgerinou G, Danopoulou I, Nicolaidou E, Katsambas AD. Sun exposure behavior and protection practices in a Mediterranean population: a questionnaire-based study. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 2009;25(3):132-7.
Halpern AC,Kopp LJ. Awareness, knowledge and attitudes to nonmelanoma skin cancer and actinic keratosis among the general public. Int J Dermatol 2005;44(2):107-11.