Air Pollution: The Knowledge and Ideas of Students in Tehran-Iran, and A Comparison with Other Countries
Study of students' knowledge about air pollution can help authorities to have better imagination of this critical environmental problem. This research examines guidance school and high school students' ideas about air pollution and the results may be useful for the respective authorities to improve cultural and educational aspects of next generation. In this cross-sectional study, a closed questionnaire was used to examine knowledge and ideas of 2140 randomly selected school students of Tehran-Iran about composition of unpolluted air, air pollution and its causes and consequences. Cognitive scores were also calculated. Outcomes were compared with results of similar researches in Australia, Hong Kong and the United Kingdom. While a student's 'cognitive score' could range from -16 to +16, Iranian students' mean cognitive score was equal to +2.97. There was not significant statistical difference between girls and boys (P=0.32). In response to question "most common gas in unpolluted air" nitrogen was mentioned by only 23.7%, While 45.1% of students mentioned oxygen. In general, student's knowledge was not acceptable and there were some misconceptions such as "supposing oxygen as the most prevalent gas in unpolluted air". The findings of this survey indicate that, this important stratum of society of Iran have been received no sufficient and efficient education and sensitization on this matter.
Dimitriou A, Christidou V. Pupils’ understanding of air pollution. Educational Research 2007;42 (1): 24-29.
Künzli N, Kaiser R, Medina S, Studnicka M, Chanel O, Filliger P, Herry M, Horak F Jr, Puybonnieux-Texier V, Quénel P, Schneider J,Seethaler R, Vergnaud JC, Sommer H., Public-health impact of outdoor and traffic-related air pollution: a European assessment, Lancet 2000;356(2): 795- 801.
Di Novi C, The influence of traffic-related pollution on individuals' life-style: results from the BRFSS, Healthecon 2010;19(11):1318-44.
Hastaie P. Air pollution countermeasures in Tehran. Available at: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTURBANTRANSPORT/Resources/tehran.pdf
Halek F, Kavouci A, Montehaie H. Role of motor-vehicles and trend of air borne particulate in the Great Tehran area, Iran. Int J Environ Health Resh 2004;14(4):307–13.
Islamic republic of Iran cost assessment of environmental degradation (sector note), June 30, 2005. Report No. 32043-IR. (Document of the World Bank). Available at: http://earthmind.net/marine/docs/wb-2005-iran-costenvironmental- degradation.pdf
World health organization, public health and the environment, Geneva, country profile of environmental burden of diseases, Iran Islamic Republic of. Available at: 2009 http://www.who.int/quantifying_ehimpacts/national/countryprofile/iran.pdf
Sudarmadi S, Suzuki Sh, Kawada T, Netti H, Soemantri S, Tri Tugaswati. A survey of perception, knowledge, awareness and attitude in regard to environmental problems in a sample of two different social groups in Jakarta, Indonesia. Environment, Development and Sustainability 2001;3(2):169-83.
Boyes E, Myers G, Skamp K, Stanisstreet M, Yeung S. Air quality: A comparison of students' conceptions and attitudes across the continents. Compare 2007; 37(4): 425-445.
Skamp K, Boyes E, Stanisstreet M. Students' Ideas and Attitudes about Air Quality, Research in Science Education 2004; 34: 313-342.
Naddafi K, Sowlat M, Safari M. Integrated Assessment of Air Pollution in Tehran, Over the Period from September 2008 to September 2009. Iran J Public Health 2012;41(2):77-86.
Air quality control Company, subsidiary of Tehran’s municipality. Available at: http://air.tehran.ir/
Cirera L, García-Marcos L, Giménez J, Moreno-Grau S, Tobías A, Pérez-Fernández V, Elvira-Rendeles B, Guillén JJ, Navarro C. Daily effects of air pollutants and pollen types on asthma and COPD hospital emergency visits in the industrial and Mediterranean Spanish city of Cartagena. Allergologia et Immunopathologia 2012; 40 (4): 231-237.
Gilmour MI, Jaakkola MS, London SJ, Nel AE, Rogers CA. How Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke, Outdoor Air Pollutants, and Increased Pollen Burdens Influences the Incidence of Asthma, Environ HealthPerspect 2006;114(4):627–33.
Wen X.J, Balluz L, mokdad A. Association between media alerts of air quality index and change of outdoor activity among adult asthma in six states, BRFSS, 2005. J Community Health 2009;34:40-6.
Semenza JC, Wilson DJ, Parra J, Bontempo BD, Hart M, Sailor DJ, George LA. Public perception and behaviorchange in relationship to hot weather and air pollution. Environ Res 2008;107(3): 401–11.
Samet J, Krewski D. Health effects associated with exposure to ambient air pollution. J Toxicol Environ Health 2007;70(3-4):227-42.
Samet JM, Dominici F, Curriero F, Coursac I, Zeger SL. Fine particulate air pollution and mortality in 20 U.S.cities, 1987-1994. N Engl J Med 2000;343(24):1742-9.
Kampa M, Castanas E, Human health effects of air pollution. Environ Pollut 2008;151(2):362-7.
Tollefson C. Clean air: A citizen's action guide. Victoria, BC: Environmental Law Centre. Available at: 2000 http://www.cleanair.ca/science_acid_rain.html
Cox PM, Betts RA, Jones CD, Spall SA, Totterdell IJ. Acceleration of global warming due to carbon-cycle feedbacks in a coupled climate model. Nature 2000;408(6809):184-7.
Pluhar ZF, Piko BF, Kovacs S, Uzzoli A. "Air pollution is bad for my health": Hungarian children's knowledge of the role of environment in health and disease. Health Place 2009;15(1):239-46.
Varisli T. Evaluating eighth grade students' environmental literacy: The role of socio-demographic variables, A thesis, July 2009. Available at: http://etd.lib.metu.edu.tr/upload/12610808/index.pdf
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.