Seroprevalence of Epstein-Barr virus among HIV Positive Patients Moreover and its Association with CD4 Positive Lymphocyte Count


Opportunistic infections are the leading cause of hospitalization and morbidity in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive patients and are the most common cause of death between them. We aimed to measure IgG antibody against EBV viral capsid antigen (EBV-VCA IgG) to determine the seroprevalence of this infection in HIV-positive population. A case-control study between September 2011 and October 2012 was conducted in a teaching hospital enrolling 114 HIV-positive patients as case group and 114 healthy individuals as control with similar age and sex. Enzyme-linked immunosurbant assay (ELISA) technique was used for determination of EBV-VAC IgG in obtained samples. Of 114 serum samples obtained from HIV-positive patients, 103 (90.4%) samples were found positive for EBV-VCA IgG antibody. There was no significant difference in seroprevalence of EBV VCA IgG antibody between patients received antiretroviral therapy and naive patients (91.5% vs. 87.5%, P>0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in EBV-VCA IgG seroprevalence between three groups of CD4+ in HIV positive group. In conclusion current study showed that seroprevalence of EBV in HIV-positive patients is higher than HIV-negative healthy participants; however, administration of HAART and CD4+ lymphocyte count did not reveal a significant effect in seroprevalence of EBV. Due to the significance of this virus in mortality and morbidity and causing certain malignancies in patients with AIDS, these patients are strongly recommended to be tested for this virus.

Schneppenheim M, Jerosch J. Echinococcosis granulosus/cysticlus of the tibia. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 2003;123(2-3):107-11.

Cheung MC, Pantanowitz L, Dezube BJ. AIDS-relatedmalignancies: emerging challenges in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Oncologist 2005;10(6):412-26.

Goedert JJ, Cote TR, Virgo P, Scoppa SM, et al. Spectrum of AIDS-associated malignant disorders. Lancet 1998;351(9119):1833-9.

Mwakigonja AR, Kaaya EE, Heiden T, et al. Tanzanian malignant lymphomas: WHO classification, presentation,

ploidy, proliferation and HIV/EBV association. BMC Cancer 2010;10:344.

Ablashi D, Chatlynne L, Cooper H, et al. Seroprevalence of human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) in countries of Southeast Asia compared to the USA, the Caribbean and Africa. Br J Cancer 1999;81(5):893-7.

Ling PD, Vilchez RA, Keitel WA, et al. Epstein-Barr virus DNA loads in adult human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. Clin Infect Dis 2003;37(9):1244-9.

Sitki-Green D, Covington M, Raab-Traub N. Compartmentalization and transmission of multiple epstein-barr virus strains in asymptomatic carriers. J Virol 2003;77(3):1840-7.

De Paschale M, Agrappi C, Manco MT, et al. Seroepidemiology of EBV and interpretation of the "isolated VCA IgG" pattern. J Med Virol 2009;81(2):325-31.

Franceschi S, Dal Maso L, La Vecchia C. Advances in the epidemiology of HIV-associated non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and other lymphoid neoplasms. Int J Cancer 1999;83(4):481-5.

Piriou E, van Dort K, Otto S, et al. Tight regulation of the Epstein-Barr virus setpoint: interindividual differences in Epstein-Barr virus DNA load are conserved after HIV infection. Clin Infect Dis 2008;46(2):313-6.

Tassan Din C, Vecchi A, Tambussi G, et al. New Microbiol 2007;30(3):283-5.

Boutboul F, Puthier D, Appay V, et al. Modulation of interleukin-7 receptor expression characterizes differentiation of CD8 T cells specific for HIV, EBV andCMV. AIDS 2005;19(17):1981-6.

Roos MT, van Lier RA, Hamann D, et al. Changes in the composition of circulating CD8+ T cell subsets during acute epstein-barr and human immunodeficiency virus infections in humans. J Infect Dis 2000;182(2):451-8.

Chakraborty N, Bhattacharyya S, De C, et al. Incidence of multiple Herpesvirus infection in HIV seropositive patients, a big concern for Eastern Indian scenario. Virol J 2010;7:147.

Campisi G, Margiotta V. Oral mucosal lesions and riskhabits among men in an Italian study population. J Oral Pathol Med 2001;30(1):22-8.

Khongkunthian P, Grote M, Isaratanan W, et al. Oralmanifestations in HIV-positive adults from Northern Thailand. J Oral Pathol Med. 2001;30(4):220-3.

González Z, Correnti M, Rivera H, et al. Epstein Barr Virus detection and latent membrane protein 1 in oral hairy leukoplakia in HIV + Venezuelan patients. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 2010;15(2):297-302.

Dias EP, Israel MS, Junior AS, et al. Prevalence of oral hairy leukoplakia in 120 pediatric patients infected with HIV-1. Braz Oral Res 2006;20(2):103-7.

Alsip G, Ench Y, Sumaya CV, et al. Increased Epstein- Barr virus DNA in oropharyngeal secretions from patients with AIDS, AIDS-related complex, or asymptomatic human immondeficiency virus infection. J Infect Dis 1988;157(5):1072-6.

Breinig MK, Zitelli B, Starzl TE, et al. Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, and other viral infections in children after liver transplantation. J Infect Dis 1987;156(2):273-9.

Henle W, Henle G. Epstein-Barr virus specific serology in immunologically compromised individuals. Cancer Res 1981;41(11 Pt 1):4222-5.

Quinnan GV, Masur H, Rook AH, et al. Herpesvirus infections in the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. JAMA 1984;252(1):72-7.

Rahman MA, Kingsley LA, Breinig MK, et al. Enhanced antibody responses to Epstein-Barr virus in HIV-infected homosexual men. J Infect Dis 1989;159(3):472-9.

Rinaldo CR, Kingsley LA, Lyter DW, et al. Association of HTLV-III with Epstein-Barr virus infection and abnormalities of T lymphocytes in homosexual men. J Infect Dis 1986;154(4):556-61.

Sumaya CV, Boswell RN, Ench Y, et al. Enhanced serological and virological findings of Epstein-Barr virus in patients with AIDS and AIDS-related complex. J Infect Dis 1986;154(5):864-70.

Rahman MA, Kingsley LA, Atchison RW, et al. Reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus during early infection with human immunodeficiency virus. J Clin Microbiol 1991;29(6):1215-20.

Ficarra G, Miliani A, Alder-Storthz K, et al. Recurrent oral condylomata acuminata and hairy leukoplakia: an early sign of myelodysplastic syndrome in an HIV-seronegative patient. J Oral Pathol Med 1991;20(8):398-402.

Shillitoe EJ. Relationship of viral infection to malignancies. Curr Opin Dent 1991;1(4):398-403.

Diaz-Mitoma F, Ruiz A, Flowerdew G, et al. High levels of Epstein-Barr virus in the oropharynx: a predictor of disease progression in human immunodeficiency virus infeetion. J Med Virol 1990;31(2):69-75.

Eby N, Grufferman S, Flannelly C, et al. Increasing incidence of primary brain lymphoma in the US. Cancer 1988;62(11):2461-5.

Levine A. Lymphoma related to human immunodeficiency virus: The epidemic shifts. J NatI Cancer Inst 1991;83(10):662-3.

Pluda J, Yarchoan R, Jaffe E, et al. Development of non- Hodgkin lymphoma in a cohort of patients with severe human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection on longterm antiretroviral therapy. Ann Intern Med 1990;113(4):276-82.

Mcclain KL, Leach CT, Jenson HB, et al. Association of Epstein-Barr virus with leiomyosarcomas in young people with AIDS. N Engl J Med 1995;332(1):12-8.

Sixbey J, Shirley P, Chesney P, et al. Detection of a second widespread strain of Epstein-Barr virus. Lancet 1989;2(8666):761-5.

Sculley T, Cros S, Borrow P, et al. Prevalence of antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2B in persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. J Infect Dis 1988;158(1):186-92.

Kyaw MT, Hurren L, Evans L, et al. Expression of B-type Epstein-Barr virus in HIV-infected patients and cardiac transplant recipients. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 1992;8(11):1869-74.

Milagres A, Dias EP, Tavares Ddos S, et al. Prevalence of oral hairy leukoplakia and epithelial infection by Epstein- Barr virus in pregnant women and diabetes mellitus patients--cytopathologic and molecular study. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2007;102(2):159-64.

Dehee A, Asselot C, Piolot T, et al. Quantification of Epstein-Barr virus DNA load in peripheral blood of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients using real-time PCR. J Med Virol 2001;65(3):543-52.

Stevens SJC, Blanka BSN, Smitsb PHM, et al. High Epstein±Barr virus (EBV) DNA loads in HIV-infected patients: correlation with antiretroviral therapy and quantitative EBV serology. AIDS 2002;16(7):993-1001.

Smith DK, Neal JJ, Holmberg SD. Unexplained opportunistic infections and CD4 T-lymphocytopenia without HIV infection--an investigation of cases in the United States. N Engl J Med 2002;328(6):373-9.

Orenstein JM, Fox C, Wahl SM. Macrophages as a source of HIV during opportunistic infections. Science 1997;276(5320):1857-61.

Shieh B, Chang MJ, Ko WC, et al. Effects of Multiple Virus Coinfections on Disease Progression in HIV-Positive Patients. Intervirology 2003;46(2):105-13.

Gray F, Belec L, Lescs M, et al. Varicella-zoster virus infection of the central nervous system in the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Brain 1994;117(Pt 5):987-99.

Chakraborty N, Bhattacharyya S, De C, et al. Incidence of multiple Herpesvirus infection in HIV seropositive patients, a big concern for Eastern Indian scenario. Virol J 2010;7(147):1-7.

Nuvor SV, Katano H, Ampofo WK, et al. Higher prevalence of antibodies to human herpesvirus 8 in HIVinfected individuals than in the general population in Ghana, West Africa. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2001;20(5):362-4.

Aquino-García SI, Rivas MA, Ceballos-Salobreña A, et al. Short communication: oral lesions in HIV/AIDS patients undergoing HAART including efavirenz. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2008;24(6):815-20.

IssueVol 52, No 12 (2014) QRcode
Epstein Barr virus Seroprevalence HIV CD4 Lymphocye

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
Abdollahi A, Shoar S, Rasoulinejad M, Sheikhbahaei S. Seroprevalence of Epstein-Barr virus among HIV Positive Patients Moreover and its Association with CD4 Positive Lymphocyte Count. Acta Med Iran. 1;52(12):916-921.