Detection of Airway Partitioning Following Unilateral Nasal Stimulations by the Forced Oscillation Technique in Rats


Nasal mucosa has an extraordinary nerve supply with unique geometry that encompasses complex physiology. Among these, side-specific predilections to the respiratory and autonomic centers are the interesting issues that have been raised about the consequences of the nasal irritations. The aim of the study was an evaluation of how intranasal stimulation influences lung mechanics and determines whether unilateral stimulation produces side-specific partitioning responses. Tracheotomized-paralyzed rats received unilateral air-puff stimulation. Inspiratory pressure- volume (P-V) curve was obtained. Low frequency forced oscillation technique (FOT) was used to detect changes in central and peripheral airways. Mean airway pressure significantly increased to >10 cmH2O in the presence of 5cmH2O of positive end-expiratory pressure. Elastance was significantly changed, and significant higher airway resistance (Raw) and lower reactance (Xrs) were noticed in peripheral airways following different side of stimulation. Calculated inspiratory P-V curve showed significant deviations in transitional, rising and maximal pressures following stimulations. Transitional left-side shifting was observed following right side stimulation, whereas left side stimulation shifted the curve to the right. May be altered respiratory mechanics is the consequences of bimodal pressure-volume relationships observed in central and peripheral airways following nasal stimulation.

Bakhshesh M, Heidarian E, Abdolkarimi A, et al.

Togeiro SM, Chaves CM Jr, Palombini L, et al. Evaluation of the upper airway in obstructive sleep apnoea. Indian J Med Res 2010;131(1):230-5.

Tamaki Sh, Yamauchi M, Fukuoka A, et al. Production of Inflammatory Mediators by Monocytes in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome. Intern Med 2009;48(15):1255-62.

Braunstahl GJ, Prins JB, KleinJan A, et al. Nose and lung cross-talk in allergic airways disease. Clin Exp Allergy mRev 2003;3(1):38-42.

Georgalas C. The role of the nose in snoring and obstructive sleep apnoea: an update. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2011;268(9):1365-73.

Braunstahl GJ, Hellings PW. Nasobronchial interaction mechanisms in allergic airways disease. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2006;14(3):176-82.

Clark TT, Undem BJ. Transduction mechanisms in airway sensory nerves. J Appl Physiol 2006;101(3):950-9.

Wakai J, Yoshizaki K, Taniguchi K, et al. Expression of Fos protein in brainstem after application of l-menthol to the rat nasal mucosa. Neurosci Lett 2008;435(3):246-50.

Kunibe I, Nonaka S, Katada A, et al. Fos expression in the brainstem nuclei evoked by nasal air-jet stimulation in rats. Am J Rhinol 2007;21(1):128-32.

Ribas-Salgueiro JL, Matarredona ER, Ribas J, et al. Enhanced c-Fos expression in the rostral ventral respiratory complex and rostral parapyramidal region by inhibition of the Na+/H+ exchanger type 3. Auton Neurosci 2006;126-127(6):347-54.

Boucher Y, Simons CT, Cuellar JM, et al. Activation of brain stem neurons by irritant chemical stimulation of the throat assessed by c-fos immunohistochemistry. Exp Brain Res 2003;148(2):211-8.

Tomita K, Takayama K. Changes in Neural c-fos expression after Unilateral Phrenicotomy in wistar rats. J Phys Ther Sci 2008;20(3):163-8.

Baraniuk JN, Merck SJ. Nasal reflexes: implications for exercise, breathing, and sex. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 2008;8(2):147-53.

Tankersley CG, Haxhiu MA, Gauda EB. Differential CO(2)-induced c-fos gene expression in the nucleus tractus solitarii of inbred mouse strains. J Appl Physiol 2002;92(3):1277-84.

Takeda M, Tanimoto T, Ikeda M, et al. Changes in c-Fos expression induced by noxious stimulation in the trigeminal spinal nucleus caudalis and C1 spinal neurons of rats after hyperbaric exposure. Arch Histol Cytol 1999;62(2):165-70.

Sharma SK, Telles S, Balkrishna A. Effect of Alternate Nostril Yoga Breathing on Autonomic and Respiratory Variables. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2011;55(5):41.

Frasnelli J, La Buissonniere Ariza V, Collignon O, et al. Localisation of unilateral nasal stimuli across sensory systems. Neurosci Lett 2010;478(2):102-6.

Upadhyay Dhungel K, Malhotra V, Sarkar D, et al. Effect of alternate nostril breathing exercise on cardiorespiratory functions. Nepal Med Coll J 2008;10(1):25-7.

Dullo P, Vedi N, Gupta U. Improvement in respiratory functions after alternate nostril breathing in healthy young adults. Pak J Physiol 2008;4(2):15-6.

Ankad RB, Herur A, Patil S, et al. Effect of Short-Term Pranayama and Meditation on Cardiovascular Functions in Healthy Individuals. Heart Views 2011;12(2):58-62.

Jain N, Srivastava RD, Singhal A. The effects of right and left nostril breathing on cardiorespiratory and autonomic parameters. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2005;49(4):469-74.

Taylor EW, Andrade DV, Abe AS, et al. The unequal influences of the left and right vagi on the control of the heart and pulmonary artery in the rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus. J Exp Biol 2009;212(Pt 1):145-51.

Jordan D. Central nervous pathways and control of the airways. Respir Physiol 2001;125(1-2):67-81.

Enomoto K, Takahashi R, Katada A, et al. The augmentation of intrinsic laryngeal muscle activity by airjet stimulation of the nasal cavity in decerebrate cats. Neurosci Res 1998;31(2):137-46.

Fontanari P, Burnet H, Zattara-Hartmann MC, et al. Changes in airway resistance induced by nasal or oral intermittent positive pressure ventilation in normal individuals. Eur Respir J 1999;13(4):867-72.

Pevernagie DA, De Meyer MM, Claeys S. Sleep, breathing and the nose. Sleep Med Rev 2005;9(6):437-51.

Hummel T, Mohammadian P, Marchl R, et al. Pain in the trigeminal system irritation of the nasal mucosa using short- and long- lasting stimuli. Int J Psychophysiol 2003;47(2):147-58.

Kanamaru A, Mutoh T, Nishimura R, et al. Respiratory and cardiovascular reflexes elicited by nasal instillation of capsaicin to anesthetized, spontaneously breathing dogs. J Vet Med Sci 2001;63(4):439-43.

Jordan D, Wood LM. A convergent input from nasal receptors and the larynx to the rostral sensory trigeminal nuclei of the cat. J Physiol 1987;393:147-55.

Wallois F, Macron JM. Nasal air puff stimulations and laryngeal, thoracic and abdominal muscle activities. Respir Physiol 1994;97(1):47-62.

Kaczka DW, Dellacá RL. Oscillation mechanics of the respiratory system: applications to lung disease. Crit Rev Biomed Eng 2011;39(4):337-59.

Thamrin C. Measurement of lung function using broadband forced oscillations. (Accessed in July 2014, 12, at

Kaczka DW, Ingenito EP, Lutchen KR. Technique to determine inspiratory impedance during mechanical ventilation: implications for flow limited patients. Ann Biomed Eng 1999;27(3):340-55.

Barnas GM, Ho G, Green MD, et al. Effects of analysis method and forcing waveform on measurement of respiratory mechanics. Respir Physiol 1992;89(3):273-85.

Kim HY, Shin YH, Jung da W, et al. Resistance and reactance in oscillation lung function reflect basal lung function and bronchial hyperresponsiveness respectively. Respirology 2009;14(7):1035-41.

Meraz EG, Nazeran H, Ramos CD, et al. Analysis of impulse oscillometric measures of lung function and respiratory system model parameters in small airwayimpaired and healthy children over a 2-year period. Biomed Eng Online 2011;10(1):21.

Evans TM, Rundell KW, Beck KC, et al. Airway narrowing measured by spirometry and impulse

oscillometry following room temperature and cold temperature exercise. Chest 2005;128(4):2412-9.

Koskela HO. Cold air-provoked respiratory symptoms: the mechanisms and management. Int J Circumpolar Health 2007;66(2):91-100.

Kaufman J, Wright GW. The effect of nasal and nasopharyngeal irritation on airway resistance in man. Am Rev Respir Dis 1969;100(5):626-30.

Ishizuka Y, Usui N. Temporal change in the airway resistance following stimulation of the nasal mucosa. Auris Nasus Larynx 1980;7(3):141-9.

Tomori Z, Widdicombe JG. Muscular, bronchomotor and cardiovascular reflexes elicited by mechanical stimulation of the respiratory tract. J Physiol 1969;200(1):25-49.

Parslow PM, Harding R, Cranage SM, et al. Arousal responses to somatosensory and mild hypoxic stimuli are depressed during quiet sleep in healthy term infants. Sleep 2003;26(6):739-44.

Kumar A. Effect of Nadi-Shodhana Pranayama on autonomic functions among healthy children. (Accessed in Apr 2014, 19, at 1/CDMPHGY00010.pdf).

Kheirandish-Gozal L, Bhattacharjee R, Gozal D. Autonomic alterations and endothelial dysfunction in pediatric obstructive sleep apnea. Sleep Med 2010;11(7):714-20.

Mailoo VJ. Single-nostril breathing to influence cognitive and autonomic functions. Ind J Physiother Occ Ther 2008;2(4):41-6.

Hall G, Hantos Z, Wildhaber J, et al. Contribution of nasal pathways to low frequency respiratory impedance in infants. Thorax 2002;57(5):396-9.

Suki B, Yuan H, Zhang Q, et al. Partitioning of lung tissue response and inhomogeneous airway constriction at the airway opening. J Appl Physiol 1997;82(4):1349-59.

Kaczka DW, Ingenito EP, Suki B, et al. Partitioning airway and lung tissue resistances in humans: effects of bronchoconstriction. J Appl Physiol 1997;82(5):1531-41.

Kaminsky DA. Peripheral lung mechanics in asthma: exploring the outer limits. Pulm Pharmacol Ther 2011;24(2):199-202.

Lutchen KR, Gillis H. Relationship between heterogeneous changes in airway morphometry and lung resistance and elastance. J Appl Physiol 1997;83(4):1192-201.

Winkler T, Venegas JG. Complex airway behavior and paradoxical responses to bronchoprovocation. J Appl Physiol 2007;103(2):655-63.

IssueVol 52, No 8 (2014) QRcode
Airway partitioning Forced oscillation technique Mechanical stress Nasal mucosa

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
Bakhshesh M, Keshavarz M, Imani A, Gharibzadeh S. Detection of Airway Partitioning Following Unilateral Nasal Stimulations by the Forced Oscillation Technique in Rats. Acta Med Iran. 52(8):623-630.