Sequences Type Analysis of Candida Albicans Isolates from Iranian Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infected Patients with Oral Candidiasis

  • Farzad Katiraee Mail Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.
  • Vahid Khalaj Department of Medical Biotechnology, Biotechnology Research Center, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.
  • Ali Reza Khosravi Department of Mycology, Mycology Research Center, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
  • Mahboubeh Hajiabdolbaghi Iranian Research Center for HIV/AIDS, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
MLST, Candida albicans, HIV patients, Genotyping


The growing number of immunocompromised individuals has increased the incidence of infections caused by Candida species during the recent decades. Typing of C. albicans on the basis of DNA sequences at multiple loci has greatly advanced our knowledge about the epidemiology and phylogeny of candidiasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diversity, and genetic relationships among C. albicans isolates obtained from HIV patients in Iran. using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) method. We analyzed 25 C. albicans isolates obtained from HIV positive patients referred to Iranian Research Center for HIV/AIDS. After diagnostic test and DNA extraction C. albicans isolates were typed using the original MLST scheme explained previously include of six loci: ACC1, VPS13, GLN4, ADP1, RPN2, and SYA1. Fifty one (2.17%) nucleotide sites were found to be polymorphic; all were found to be heterozygous in at least one isolate. For the 25 clinical isolates, 22 diploid sequence types were defined by the genotypes identified from the six loci. The MLST data suggest a relatively high level of divergence in the population structure of C. albicans isolated from HIV infected patients. These findings indicate that in these patients there is a favorable context for the growth of potential pathogenic C. albicans. We found no association between fluconazole resistance, highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) receiving and either sequence type or group.


Akpan A, Morgan R. Oral candidiasis. Postgrad Med J 2002;78(922):455-9.

Tavanti A, Gow NA, Senesi S, et al. Optimization and validation of multilocus sequence typing for Candida albicans. J Clin Microbiol 2003;41(8):3765-76.

Odds FC, Jacobsen MD. Multilocus sequence typing ofmpathogenic Candida species. Eukaryot Cell 2008;7(7):1075-84.

Bougnoux ME, Morand S, d'Enfert C. Usefulness of multilocus sequence typing for characterization of clinical isolates of Candida albicans. J Clin Microbiol 2002;40(4):1290-7.

Robles JC, Koreen L, Park S, et al. Multilocus sequence typing is a reliable alternative method to DNA fingerprinting for discriminating among strains of Candida albicans. J Clin Microbiol 2004;42(6):2480-8.

Katiraee F, khosravi AR, Khalaj V, et al. Oropharyngeal candidiasis and oral yeast colonization in Iranian Human Immunodeficiency Virus positive patients. J Med Mycol 2010;20(1):8-14.

Carrillo-Munoz AJ, Quindos G, del Valle O, et al. Activity of caspofungin and voriconazole against clinical isolates of Candida and other medically important yeasts by the CLSI M-44A disk diffusion method with Neo-Sensitabs tablets. Chemotherapy 2008;54(1):38-42.

National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS). Method for antifungal disk diffusion susceptibility testing of yeasts:approved guideline M44-A. NCCLS;2004.

Bougnoux ME, Tavanati A, Bouchier C, et al. Collaborative consensus for optimized multilocus sequence typing of Candida albicans. J Clin Microbiol 2003;41(11):5265-6.

Tamura K, Dudley J, Nei M, et al. MEGA4:Molecular= Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA) software version 4.0. Mol Biol Evol 2007:24(8):1596-9.

Bougnoux ME, Aanensen DM, Morand S, et al. Multilocus sequence typing of Candida albicans:strategies, data exchange and applications. Infect Genet Evol 2004:4(3):243-52.

Jung SI, Shin JH, Song JH, et al. Multicenter surveillance of species distribution and antifungal susceptibilities of Candida bloodstream isolates in South Korea. Med Mycol 2010;48(4):669-74.

Odds FC, Boungoux ME, Shaw DJ, et al. Molecular phylogenetics of Candida albicans. Eukaryot Cell 2007;6(6):1041-52.

Maiden MC, Bygraves JA, Feil E, et al. Multilocus sequence typing:a portable approach to the identificationof clones within populations of pathogenic microorganisms. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1998;95(6):3140-5.

Soll DR, Pujol C. Candida albicans clades. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 2003;39(1):1-7.

Odds FC, Davidson AD, Jacobsen MD, et al. Candida albicans strain maintenance, replacement, and microvariation demonstrated by multilocus sequence typing. J Clin Microbiol 2006;44(10):3647-58.

Tavanti A, Davidson AD, Fordyce MJ, et al. Population structure and properties of Candida albicans, as determined by multilocus sequence typing. J Clin Microbiol 2005;43(11):5601-13.

How to Cite
Katiraee F, Khalaj V, Khosravi AR, Hajiabdolbaghi M. Sequences Type Analysis of Candida Albicans Isolates from Iranian Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infected Patients with Oral Candidiasis. Acta Med Iran. 52(3):187-191.