Gender Difference in Clinical Presentation of Turkish Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis
The study was aimed to investigate the diagnostic differences between male and female patients in pulmonary tuberculosis in a tertiary 660 bedded Educational Respiratory Medicine Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey. A retrospective study was conducted with the new diagnosed, 50 men and 50 female pulmonary tuberculous patients. Age, symptoms, personal history, radiologic and sputum smear findings were collected from their files. 44 male and 42 female patients were enrolled to the study. Male patients tended to be older, smoke more, get alcohol more, lose weight more and have sputum smear positivity more than the female patients. Neither the time of diagnosis nor the radiologic appearance differed statistically. The radiologic appearance, not the clinic symptoms, help to diagnose tuberculosis in female patients; especially in those with no weight loss and sputum smear negativity.
World Health Organisation (WHO). Global tuberculosis control: surveillance, planning, financing. WHO Report 2008.
Kilicaslan Z. Tuberculosis in Turkey and the world. Aknem Derg 2007;21(ek 2):S76-80.
World Health organization (WHO). Treatment of Tuberculosis: Guidelines for National Programmes. 3rd ed. Geneva: WHO; 2003.
Hamid Salim MA, Declercg E, Van Deun A, et al. Gender difference in tuberculosis: a prevalance survey done in Bangladesh. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2004;8(8):952-7.
Ahsan G, Ahmed J, Singhasivanon P, et al. Gender difference in treatment seeking behaviors of tuberculosis cases in rural communities of Bangladesh. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2004;35(1):126-35.
Yamasaki-Nakagawa M, Ozasa K, Yamada N, et al. Gender difference in delays to diagnosis and health care seeking behaviour in a rural area of Nepal. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2001;5(1):24-31.
Jimenez-Corona ME, Garcia-Garcia L, DeRiemer K, et al. Gender differentials of pulmonary tuberculosis transmission and reactivation in an endemic area. Thorax 2006;61(4):348-53.
Hudelson P. Gender differentials in tuberculosis: role of socio-economic and cultural factors. Tuberc Lung Dis 1996;77(5):391-400.
Long NH, Johansson E, Lonnroth K, et al. Longer delays in tuberculosis diagnosis among women in Vietnam. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 1999;3(5):388-93.
Matsushita Y, Ikeda N, Kurosawa T, et al. The characteristics of clinical features of pulmonary tuberculosis in female. Kekkau 1996;71(6):391-8.
Lawson L, Lawson JO, Olajide I, et al. Sex differences in the clinical presentation of urban Nigerian patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. West Afr J Med 2008;27(2):82-6.
Kaona FA, Tuba M, Siziya S, et al. An assesment of factors contributing to treatment adherence and knowledge of TB transmission among patients on TB treatment . BMC Public Health 2004;4(12):68.
Ferraro R, Lifioja S, Fontuicielle AM, et al. Lower sedantary metabolic rate in women compared with men. J Clin Invset 1992;90(3):780-4.
Abernathy RP, Black DR. Healthy Bodyweights: an alternative perspective. Am J clin Nurt 1996;63(3 Supp):448S-51S.
Purohit MR, Mustafa T, Morkve O, et al. Gender differences in the clinical diagnosis of tuberculosis lympadenitis- a hospital based study from Central India. Int J Infect Dis 2009;13(5):600-5.
Palomares MR, Sayre JW, Shekar KC, et al. Gender influence on weight-loss patern and survi of Nonsmall cell lung carcinoma patients. Cancer 1996;78(10):2119-26.
Donnely S, Walsh D. The symptoms of advanced cancer. Semin Oncol 1995;22(2 Suppl 3):67-72.
Sarhill N, Mahmoud F, Walsh D, et al. Evaluation ofnutritional status in advanced metastatic cancer. Support Care Cancer 2003;11(10):652-9.
Walelee HA, Wang W, Schiller JH, et al. Survival differences by sex for patients with advanced NSCLC on eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Trial 1594. J Thorac Oncol 2006;1(5):441-6.
Austin JF, Dick JM, Zwarenstein M. Gender disparity amongst TB suspects and new TB patients according to data recorded at the South African Institute of Medical Research Laboratory for the Western Cape Region of South Africa. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2004;8(4):435-9.
Balasubramanian R, Garg R, Santha T, et al. Gender disparities in tuberculosis: a report from a rural DOTS programme in South India. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis,2004;8(3):323-32.
Boeree MJ, Harries AD, Godschalk P, et al. Gender differences in relation to sputum submission and smearpositive pulmonary tuberculosis in Malawi. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2000;4(9):882-4.
Rao S. Tuberculosis and patient gender: An analysis and its implications in tuberculosis control. Lung India 2009;26(2):46-7.
Thorson A, Long NH, Larsson LO. Chest X-ray findings in relation to gender and symptoms: a study of patients with smear positive tuberculosis in Vietnam. Scan J Infect Dis 2007;39(1):33-7.
Atlet-Gomez MN, Alcaide J, Goday P, et al. Clinical and epidemiological aspects of smoking and tuberculosis: a study of 13.038 cases. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2005;9:430-6.
Hassmiller KM. The association betweensmoking and tuberculosis. Salud Publica Mex 2006;48(Suppl 1):S201-16.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.