Body Dysmorphic Disorder in Iranian Orthodontic Patients

  • Soghra Yassaei Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.
  • Mahdjoube Goldani Moghadam Mail Postgraduate Student, Dental Research Center, Faculty of Dentistry, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, Iran.
  • Hossein Aghili Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran .
  • Seyed Mahmoud Tabatabaei Department of Psychology, Medical Ethics and History of Medicine Research Center,Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Body Dysmorphic Disorder, Iran, Orthodontic


Patient's preoccupations with perceived defect in appearance or excessive concern about minimal flaws are among diagnostic criteria of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). Sufferers usually seek cosmetic procedures such as orthodontic treatment. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of BDD among a sample of Iranian orthodontic patients. A total of 270 orthodontic patients were evaluated with BDD-YBOCS questionnaire for the diagnosis of BDD. Fifteen patients (5.5%) were screened positive for BDD. BDD was more frequent among females, singles and in younger patients. Most of the BDD patients experienced multiple previous orthodontic evaluations. The relative high prevalence of BDD among orthodontic patients in Iran offers that orthodontists should take psychologically based problems such as BDD into account while evaluating patient's orthodontic problems.


Fava GA. Morselli’s legacy: dysmorphophobia. Psychother Psychosom 1992;58(3-4):117-8.

Sadock BJ, Sadock VA, Ruiz P, et al. Kaplan and Sadock’s comprehensive textbook of psychiatry. 9th ed. Baltimore: Lippincott William & Wilkins; 2009: p. 644- 8.

American Psychiatric Association, editor. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 3rd ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 1987.

Phillips KA. The presentation of body dysmorphic disorder in medical settings. Prim psychiatry 2006;13(7):51-9.

Phillips KA. Body dysmorphic disorder: the distress of imagined ugliness. Am J Psychiatry 1991;148(9):1138-49.

Wilson JB, Arpey CJ. Body dysmorphic disorder: suggestions for detection and treatment in a surgical dermatology practice. Dermatol Surg 2004;30(11):1391-9.

Hepburn S, Cunningham S. Body dysmorphic disorder in adult orthodontic patients. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2006;130(5):569-74.

Biby EL. The relationship between body dysmorphic disorder and depression, self-esteem, somatization, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. J Clin Psychol 1998;54(4):489-99.

Veale D, Boocock A, Gournay K, et al. Body dysmorphic disorder. A survey of fifty cases. Br J Psychiatry 1996;169(2):196-201.

Thomas CS. A study of facial dysmorphophobia. Psychiatr Bull 1995;19:736-9.

Phillips KA, Hollander E, Rasmussen SA, et al. A severity rating scale for body dysmorphic disorder: development, reliability, and validity of a modified version of the Yale- Brown obsessive compulsive scale. Psychopharmacol Bull 1997;33(1):17-22.

Phillips KA, editor. Understanding body dysmorphic disotder; an essential guide. 1st ed. New York: Oxford University Press; 2009.

Polo M. Body dysmorphic disorder: a screening guide for orthodontists. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2011;139(2):170-3.

Vulink NC, Rosenberg A, Plooij JM, et al. Body dysmorphic disorder screening in maxillofacial outpatients presenting for orthognathic surgery. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2008;37(11):985-91.

Dufresne RG, Phillips KA, Vittorio CC, et al. A screening questionnaire for body dysmorphic disorder in a cosmetic dermatologic surgery practice. Dermatol Surg 2001;27(5):457-62.

Phillips KA, Dufresne RG Jr, Wilkel CS, et al. Rate of body dysmorphic disorder in dermatology patients. J Am Acad Dermatol 2000;42(3):436-41.

Aouizerate B, Pujol H, Grabot D, et al. Body dysmorphic disorder in a sample of cosmetic surgery applicants. Eur Psychiatry 2003;18(7):365-8.

Vindigni V. The importance of recognizing body dysmorphic disorder in cosmetic surgery patients: do our patients need a preoperative psychiatric evaluation? Eur J Plast Surg 2002;25(6):305-8.

Uzun O, Basoglu C, Akar A, et al. Body dysmorphic disorder in patients with acne. Compr Psychiatry 2003;44(5):415-9.

Phillips KA, Menard W, Fay C, et al. Demographic characteristics phenomenology, comorbidity, and family history in 200 individuals with body dysmorphic disorder. Psychosomatics 2005;46(4):317-25.

How to Cite
Yassaei S, Goldani Moghadam M, Aghili H, Tabatabaei SM. Body Dysmorphic Disorder in Iranian Orthodontic Patients. Acta Med Iran. 52(6):454-457.