Clinical Clerkship Education Improves With Implementing a System of Internal Program Evaluation Using Medical Students' Feedbacks
Quality of clinical education for medical students has always been a concern in academic medicine. This concern has increased in today’s time-squeeze while faculty members have to fulfill their complementary roles as a teacher, researcher, and practitioner. One of the strategies for program evaluation is obtaining trainees’ feedbacks since they are the main customers of educational programs; however, there are debates about the efficacy of student feedback as a reliable source for reforms. We gathered Likert scores on a 16-item questionnaire from 2,771 medical students participating in all clerkship programs in a multidisciplinary teaching hospital. An expert panel consisting of 8 attending physicians established content validity of the questionnaire while a high Cronbach’s Alpha (0.93) proved its reliability. Summary reports of these feedbacks were presented to heads of departments, clerkship program directors, and hospital administrators, at the end of each semester. Analysis of variance was used for comparing hospital scores across different time periods and different departments. Significant changes (P<0.001) were observed in mean scores between different semesters (partial η2=0.090), different departments (partial η2=0.149) as well as the interaction term between departments and semesters (partial η2=0.111). A significant improvement in mean clinical education score is noticeable after three semesters from the beginning of the survey. Periodic, systematic trainee’s feedback to program directors can lead to an improved educational performance in teaching hospitals.
Kuttner R. Managed care and medical education. New Engl J Med 1999;341:1092-6.
Guyatt GH, Nishikawa J, Willan A, McIlroy W, Cook D, Gibson J, et al. A measurement process for evaluating clinical teachers in internal medicine. CMAJ 1993;149:1097.
Copeland HL, Hewson MG. Developing and testing an instrument to measure the effectiveness of clinical teaching in an academic medical center. Acad Med 2000;75:161.
Penny AR, Coe R. Effectiveness of consultation on student ratings feedback: A meta-analysis. Rev Educ Res 2004;74:215.
Parsell G, Bligh J. Recent perspectives on clinical teaching. Med Educ 2001;35:409-14.
Baker K. Clinical teaching improves with resident evaluation and feedback. Anesthesiology 2010;113:693-703.
The Executive Council. The World Federation for Medical E. International standards in medical education: assessment and accreditation of medical schools' educational programmes. A WFME position paper. Med Educ 1998;32:549-58.
Steiner IP, Franc-Law J, Kelly KD, Rowe BH. Faculty evaluation by residents in an emergency medicine program: a new evaluation instrument. Acad Emerg Med 2000;7:1015-21.
Dolmans DH, Wolfhagen HA, Essed GG, Scherpbier AJ,Van Der Vleuten CP. Students' perceptions of relationships between some educational variables in the out-patient setting. Med Educ 2002;36:735-41.
Dornan T. Experience based learning: learning clinical medicine in workplaces [dissertation]. Masstricht Univ.,2006.
Beckman TJ, Lee MC. Proposal for a collaborative approach to clinical teaching. Mayo Clin Proc
Skeff KM. Evaluation of a method for improving the teaching performance of attending physicians. Am J Med
Coe R. Can feedback improve teaching? A review of the social science literature with a view to identifying the conditions under which giving feedback to teachers will result in improved performance. Res Papers Educ 1998;13:43-66.
Kember D, Leung DYP, Kwan KP. Does the use of student feedback questionnaires improve the overall quality of teaching? Assess Eval Higher Educ 2002;27:411-25.
Kirshner B, Guyatt G. A methodological framework for assessing health indices. J Chronic Dis 1985;38:27-36.
Downing SM, English DC, Dean RE. Resident ratings of surgical faculty. Improved teaching effectiveness through feedback. Am Surg 1983;49:329-32.
Postuma R. Evaluation of surgical faculty and surgical undergraduate teaching. Can J Surg J 1985;28:351-4.
Skeff KM, Stratos GA, Berman J, Bergen MR. Improving clinical teaching: evaluation of a national dissemination program. Arch Int Med 1992;152:1156-61.
Sargeant J, Mann K, Sinclair D, Van der Vleuten C, Metsemakers J. Challenges in multisource feedback: intended and unintended outcomes. Med Educ 2007;41:583-91.
Cantillon P, Sargeant J. Giving feedback in clinical settings. BMJ 2008;337:a1961.
Dent MM, Boltri J, Okosun IS. Do volunteer community- based preceptors value students' feedback? Acad Med 2004;79:1103-7.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.