Cardiovascular Malformations in Infants of Diabetic Mothers: A Retrospective Case-Control Study
Maternal diabetes has teratogenic effects on the evolution of the fetal cardiovascular system; as a consequence, cardiovascular malformations are the most common anomalies in infants of diabetic mothers. The present study focuses on the association of all types of diabetes in mothers with the incidence of congenital cardiovascular malformations in their infants. In this retrospective case-control study performed between the years 2008 and 2010, 35 infants of diabetic mothers were selected as a case group, and another 35 infants of mothers with normal blood glucose levels were selected as a control group. Data has been extracted from patients’ files and registered. Finally, the association of data has been performed according to statistical analysis. According to the results, the prevalence of cardiovascular anomalies was significantly higher in infants of diabetic mothers (P=0.018). The most common malformations in the case group were PDA 10%, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 9% and PFO 8%. Maternal diabetes type (overt or gestational diabetes), duration and control method did not correspond with any significant differences in the prevalence of cardiac anomalies. The results of this study indicate that diabetes in pregnant women plays an important role in the incidence of certain types of cardiac anomalies, such as PFO, HCMPT, and PDA. As a result, the performance of diagnostic procedures (like embryonic echo, before and after birth), provision of special prenatal care to diabetic mothers, and providing supportive and therapeutic care to symptomatic infants seems highly advisable in such cases.
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