Evaluation of Cognitive Functions in Iranian Children and Adolescents With Diabetes Mellitus
Diabetes in children and adolescents is a chronic condition with an expanding trend in the community. Several studies have shown cognitive dysfunctions are the most important side effects of diabetes among individuals of younger ages. Due to cultural differences and their impact on cognitive issues, the authors decided to assess the cognitive functions of Iranian children and adolescents with diabetes. Cognitive functions including memory, attention and executive functions were evaluated in 62 diabetic children and adolescents and healthy peers using CANTAB cognitive tests. Other data such as demographic, school performance and medical information were collected by questionnaires. Except in the case of few variables in RVP, SSP and SST, no significant difference exists between diabetic children and the control group in terms of different cognitive domains. But cognitive variables, especially in PRM, SWM and SOC test, has been shown to be deteriorated with increasing HbA1C values in serum levels. Diabetes has no impact on the cognitive functioning of children provided by maintaining a glycemic control. It is proposed that the adoption of appropriate parenting styles and family and social support can prevent cognitive changes in children with diabetes.
Alemzadeh R WDDmicIKR, Behrman RE, Jenson HB,Stanton BF, eds. Nelson textbook of pediatrics. 18th ed.Philadelphia: Saunders; 2007. pp. 2405–25.
Morales AE, She JX, Schatz DA. Prediction andprevention of type 1 diabetes. Current diabetes reports2001;1(1):28-32.
Mamoulakis D, Galanakis E, Bicouvarakis S, ParaskakisE, Sbyrakis S. Epidemiology of childhood type I diabetesin Crete, 1990-2001. Acta Paediatr. 2003;92(6):737-9.
Setoodeh A, Mostafavi F, Hedayat T. Glycemic control inIranian children with type 1 diabetes mellitus: effect ofgender. Indian journal of pediatrics. 2012;79(7):896-900.
Forsander G, Bogelund M, Haas J, Samuelsson U.Adolescent life with diabetes-Gender matters for the levelof distress. Experiences from the national TODS study.Pediatr Diabetes. 2016.
Ojo O, Brooke J. Evaluating the asociationbetweenDiabetesCognitive Decline and Dementia Internationaljournal of environmental research and public health.2015;12(7):8281-94
Limbers CA, Emery K, Young D, Stephen M. Cognitivefunctioning, metabolic control, and treatment type inyouth with type 1 diabetes. Journal of pediatricendocrinology & metabolismJPEM. 2015;28(3-4):353-5.
Abo-El-Asrar M, Andrawes NG, Rabie MA, El-GabryDA, Khalifa AG, El-Sherif M, f. Cognitive functions inchildren and adolescents with early-onset diabetesmellitus in Egypt. Applied neuropsychology Child.2016:1-10.
Khanam R, Nghiem S. Family Income and ChildCognitive and Noncognitive Development in Australia:Does Money Matter? Demography. 2016;53(3):597-621.
Burger K. How does early childhood care and educationaffect cognitive development? An international review ofthe effects of early interventions for children fromdifferent social backgrounds. Early Childhood ResearchQuarterly 2010;25(2):26.
Burger K. How does early childhood care and educationaffect cognitive development? An international review ofthe effects of early interventions for children fromdifferent social backgrounds. Early Childhood ResearchQuarterly. 2010;25(2):26.
Watson SE, Kuhl EA, Foster MB, Omoruyi AO, KingerySE, Woods C, et al. The impact of insurance coverage andthe family on pediatric diabetes management. PediatrDiabetes. 2016.
Ahmadi A, Gharipour M, Nouri F, Sarrafzadegan N.Metabolic syndrome in Iranian youths: a populationbasedstudy on junior and high schools students in ruraland urban areas. Journal of diabetes research.2013;2013:738485.
Pourabbasi A, Tehrani-Doost M, Ebrahimi Qavam S,Larijani B. Evaluation of the correlation between type 1diabetes and cognitive function in children andadolescents, and comparison of this correlation withstructural changes in the central nervous system: a studyprotocol. BMJ Open. 2016;6(4):e007917.
Gaudieri PA, Chen R, Greer TF, Holmes CS. Cognitivefunction in children with type 1 diabetes: a meta-analysis.Diabetes Care. 2008;31(9):1892-7.
Ohmann S, Popow C, Rami B, Konig M, Blaas S, Fliri C,et al. Cognitive functions and glycemic control in childrenand adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Psychologicalmedicine. 2010;40(1):95-103.
Mottus R, Luciano M, Starr JM, Deary IJ. Diabetes andlife-long cognitive ability. J Psychosom Res.2013;75(3):275-8.
Ly TT, Anderson M, McNamara KA, Davis EA, JonesTW. Neurocognitive outcomes in young adults withearly-onset type 1 diabetes: a prospective follow-upstudy. Diabetes Care. 2011;34(10):2192-7.
Stevenson-Hinde J. Parenting in different cultures: Timeto focus. Developmental Psychology. 1998;34(4):3.
Heidi Keller SV, Relindis Dzeaye Yovsi. Conceptions ofParenting in Different Cultural Communities: The Case ofWest African Nso and Northern German Women. Socialdevelopment. 2005;14(1):23.
Martin Pinquart. Do the Parent–Child Relationship andParenting Behaviors Differ Between Families With aChild With and Without Chronic Illness? A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Pediatric Psychology. 2013;38(7):14.
Tricia A Miller MRD. Importance of family/socialsupport and impact on adherence to diabetic therapy.Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets andTherapy. 2013;6:6.
Berger LM, McLanahan SS. Income, RelationshipQuality, and Parenting: Associations with ChildDevelopment in Two-Parent Families. Journal ofmarriage and the family. 2015;77(4):996-1015.
Wiebe DJH, Vicki; Berg, Cynthia A. The social contextof managing diabetes across the life span. The socialcontext of managing diabetes across the life span.2016;71(7):13.
Obeidollah Faraji KE, Ali Akbari Sari, and HamidRavaghi. Policies and Programs for Prevention andControl of Diabetes in Iran: A Document Analysis.Global journal of health science. 2015;7(6):11.
Kaykhanzadeh h. Ss. Symposiums:speakers’ corner: gabric diabeteseducation association. Nutrition andfood sciences research 2014;1:2.