Analysis and Description of Suicidal Burns Admitted to Al-Fayhaa General Hospital in Basra, Iraq
Suicide by self-burning remains a common method of suicide amongst women in Iraq and some neighboring countries. This study aimed to describe the problem of self-burning in Basra province and investigate the associated factors. A prospective study was undertaken between October 2016 and May 2017 in Al-Fayhaa Burn Center. Data were collected from all patients admitted to the center for a self-inflicted burn. Sociodemographic information and cause of suicide were obtained using an interviewer-administered questionnaire, and clinical data were transcribed from hospital records. There were 62 cases (females 74%, males 26%) of self-burning during the 6 months data collection accounting for 22% of all burn admission. The age ranged from 9-56 years (mean 25.3, SD 10.8 year). The vast majority had no or only basic education (92%), 55% were married, 60% were from outside Basra city and 53% considered themselves from a poor socioeconomic background. The incident mostly occurred at home (84%) while the person was alone (91%) using kerosene as the burning material (82%). The total burn surface area ranged from 20-100% with a median of 80% (IQR 60-95). The median hospital stay was 5 days (IQR 1-12 days). In-hospital mortality rate was 72.6%. Suicide by self-burning seems not to be uncommon in Basra and require more attention from public health and social services. More research is required to provide a better estimation of the problem and in-depth understanding of the factors that contribute to the problem.
WHO fact sheet on suicide. (Accessed June 2018, 24, at http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs398/en/).
Lozano R, Naghavi M, Foreman K, Lim S, Shibuya K, Aboyans V, et al. Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet 2012;380:2095-128.
Laloë V. Patterns of deliberate self-burning in various partsof the world. A review. Burns 2004;30:207-15.
Fernando R, Hewagama M, Priyangika WD, Range S, Karunaratne S. A study on suicide by self immolation. Ceylon Med J 2011;56:182-3.
Cameron DR, Pegg SP, Muller M. Self-inflicted burns. Burns 1997;23:519-21.
Maghsoudi H, Garadagi A, Jafary GA, Azarmir G, Aali N, Karimian B, et al. Women victims of self-inflicted burns inTabriz, Iran. Burns 2004;30:217-20.
Greenbaum AR, Donne J, Wilson D, Dunn KW. Intentional burn injury: an evidenc.e-based, clinical and forensic review. Burns 2004;30:628-42.
Poeschla B, Combs H, Livingstone S, Romm S, Klein MB. Selfimmolation: socioeconomic, cultural and psychiatric patterns. Burns 2011;37:1049-57.
Rezaeian M. Self-Immolation in Women: Addressing an Urgent Human Crisis. Int J High Risk Behav Addict 2017;6:2251-872X.
Al Jazeera. Burning for justice 2015. (Accessed June 2018, 24, at http://www.stream.aljazeera.com/story/ 201307040113-0022879).
Ahmadi A, Mohammadi R, Stavrinos D, Almasi A, Schwebel DC. Self-immolation in Iran. J Burn Care Res 2008;29:451-60.
Othman N. Suicide by self-burning in Iraqi Kurdistan: description and risk factors. Arch Suicide Res 2011;15:238-49.
Al-Zacko SM. Self-inflicted burns in Mosul: a cross-sectional study. Ann Burns Fire Disasters 2012;25:121-5.
Wei KC, Chua HC. Suicide in Asia. Int Rev Psychiatry 2008;20:434-40.
Ahmadi A. Suicide by self-immolation: comprehensive overview, experiences and suggestions. J Burn Care Res 2007;28:30-41.
Carini L, Grippaudo FR, Bartolini A. Epidemiology of burns at the Italian Red Cross hospital in Baghdad. Burns 2005;31:687-91.
Ragheb SA, Qaryoute S, Ei-Muhtaseb H. Mortality of burn injuries in Jordan. Burns 1984;10:439-43.
Hilal A, Çekin N, Arslan M. Deaths due to burns in Adana, Turkey. Burns 2008;34:982-5.
Rezaeian M. Epidemiology of suicide after natural disasters: a review on the literature and a methodological framework for future studies. Am J Disaster Med 2008;3:52-6.
Rezaeian M. Suicide among young middle eastern muslim females. Crisis 2010;31:36-42.
Roy A. Psychiatric emergencies. In: Sadock B, Sadock V, editors. Kaplan and Sadock' s Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams &Wilkins, 2000:2031-55.
Zarghami M, Khalilian A. Deliberate self-burning in Mazandaran, Iran. Burns 2002;28:115-9.
Haddad SY, Haddadin KJ, Abu-Samen M, Wreikat MW, Haddad AI. Suicide attempted by burning: a three-year study. Ann Burns Fire Disasters 1998;11:214-6.
Mabrouk AR, Omar AN, Massoud K, Sherif MM, El Sayed N. Suicide by burns: a tragic end. Burns 1999;25:337-9.
Mehrpour O, Javadinia SA, Malic C, Dastgiri S, Ahmadi A. A survey of characteristics of self-immolation in the east of Iran. Acta Med Iran 2012;50:328-34.
Meir PB, Sagi A, Yakar YB, Rosenberg L. Suicide attempts by self-immolation—our experience. Burns 1990;16:257-8.
Panjeshahin MR, Lari AR, Talei AR, Shamsnia J, Alaghehbandan R. Epidemiology and mortality of burns in the South West of Iran. Burns 2001;27:219-26.
Acikel C, Peker F, Ebrinc S, Ulkur E, Celikoz B. Self-inflicted burns initiated as a socio-economic or political protest. Ann Burns Fire Disasters 2001;14:168-70.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.