Plasma D-Dimer Levels Correlated With Advanced Breast Carcinoma in Female Patients: A Prospective Study at Baghdad Teaching Hospital
Advanced breast cancer is a common disease among female gender in the world. There is a correlation between cancer and hypercoagulation. In a cancer state, there is an increase in the level of cross-linked fibrin degradation product (d-dimer) which indicates systemic activation of fibrinolysis and hemostasis. So, there is a relation between increase d-dimer value and advanced breast disease. To study the relation between preoperative plasma d-dimer level and tumor extension, choose the proper option of treatment, and to decrease morbidity and mortality in patients with breast carcinoma, a prospective study (cohort study) was done at Baghdad teaching hospital (department of surgery) from Jan 2014 to Jan 2016. Seventy patients were categorized into two equal groups, group one with breast carcinoma, and group two with benign breast tumor. Plasma d-dimer levels were compared for each group and in relation to (tumor size, stage, grade, lymphovascular invasion, and lymph nodes involvement). The d-dimer level was normal in group two (<0.25 mg/l) and high in group one in other words, the d-dimer level was increasing in advanced breast carcinoma group with enlarged tumor size, higher stage and grade, lymphovascular invasion and lymph nodes’ involvement. Plasma d-dimer levels were a good prognostic factor in breast carcinoma especially in advanced breast carcinoma, and it could be considered a factor for clinical stage progression lymphovascular invasion, and metastasis.
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