Preptin and Myostatin Independently Increase in Pre-Diabetics and Patients of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
The relation between serum preptin, myostatin, insulin, and also homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance were examined in pre-diabetes persons and newly diagnosed patients with overt type 2 diabetes mellitus. A total of 84 subjects were included in the study and assigned into three groups: normoglycemic participants (group 1=27), pre-diabetes (group 2=30), and T2DM (group 3=29). Serum insulin, preptin, and myostatin levels were measured with immunoradiometric assay (IRMA), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA), respectively. Patients with T2DM had higher levels of preptin compared to normoglycemic (461.25±53.90 vs. 407.54±54.78, P<0.001). Furthermore, these patients had elevated levels of myostatin compared with controls (2710.60±559.09 vs. 2246.37±416.40, P<0.001). Preptin and myostatin both positively correlated with serum insulin (r=0.369, P=0.01, and r=0.309, P=0.04, respectively). However, no significant association was found between serum preptin and myostatin levels. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that insulin was affected more by preptin, with only a trivial contribution from myostatin. Serum preptin and myostatin levels increase in pre-diabetic subjects and even further in type 2 diabetic patients. The correlation between preptin and insulin evolves when pre-diabetes or overt type 2 diabetes develops. Moreover, serum myostatin increases in association with insulin and not HOMA-IR in diabetic conditions.
Salehi A, de la Cour CD, Håkanson R, Lundquist I. Effects of ghrelin on insulin and glucagon secretion: a study of isolated pancreatic islets and intact mice. Regulatory peptides. 2004;118(3):143-50.
Cornish J, Callon KE, Bava U, et al. Preptin, another peptide product of the pancreatic β-cell, is osteogenic in vitro and in vivo. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2007;292(1):E117-E22.
Abd El Dayem Soha M, Battah Ahmed A, El Shehaby A, Abd Allah N. Assessment of human cartilage glycoprotein 39 (YKL-40), preptin, and nitric oxide in adolescent patients with type 1 diabetes and its relation to cardiorenal affection. Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism; 2015:309.
Aslan M, Celik O, Karsavuran N, et al. Maternal serum and cord blood preptin levels in gestational diabetes mellitus. J Perinatol. 2011;31(5):350-5.
Bu Z, Kuok K, Meng J, Wang R, Xu B, Zhang H. The relationship between polycystic ovary syndrome, glucose tolerance status and serum preptin level. Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology. 2012;10(1):10.
Yang G, Li L, Chen W, Liu H, Boden G, Li K. Circulating preptin levels in normal, impaired glucose tolerance, and type 2 diabetic subjects. Annals of medicine. 2009;41(1):52-6.
Aahmad SNS, Nourollahi S, Kazerouni F, et al. Investigation of the relation between bone mass density and serum preptin levels in pre-and postmenopausal women. Journal of bone and mineral metabolism. 2017:1-6.
Brandt C, Nielsen AR, Fischer CP, Hansen J, Pedersen BK, Plomgaard P. Plasma and Muscle Myostatin in Relation to Type 2 Diabetes. PLOS ONE. 2012;7(5):e37236.
Guo T, Jou W, Chanturiya T, Portas J, Gavrilova O, McPherron AC. Myostatin Inhibition in Muscle, but Not Adipose Tissue, Decreases Fat Mass and Improves Insulin Sensitivity. PLOS ONE. 2009;4(3):e4937.
Sáinz N, Rodríguez A, Catalán V, et al. Leptin Administration Favors Muscle Mass Accretion by Decreasing FoxO3a and Increasing PGC-1α in ob/ob Mice. PLOS ONE. 2009;4(9):e6808.
Coleman SK, Rebalka IA, D’Souza DM, Deodhare N, Desjardins EM, Hawke TJ. Myostatin inhibition therapy for insulin-deficient type 1 diabetes. Scientific reports. 2016;6:32495.
Wang F, Liao Y, Li X, Ren C, Cheng C, Ren Y. Increased circulating myostatin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology [Medical Sciences]. 2012;32(4):534-9.
Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes Care. 2014;37(Supplement 1):S81-S90.
Baykus Y, Gurates B, Aydin S, et al. Changes in serum obestatin, preptin and ghrelins in patients with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. Clinical Biochemistry. 2012;45(3):198-202.
Buchanan CM, Phillips AR, Cooper GJ. Preptin derived from proinsulin-like growth factor II (proIGF-II) is secreted from pancreatic islet β-cells and enhances insulin secretion. Biochemical Journal. 2001;360(2):431-9.
García-Fontana B, Reyes-García R, Morales-Santana S, et al. Relationship between myostatin and irisin in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a compensatory mechanism to an unfavourable metabolic state? Endocrine. 2016;52(1):54-62.
Wilkes JJ, Lloyd DJ, Gekakis N. Loss-of-function mutation in myostatin reduces tumor necrosis factor α production and protects liver against obesity-induced insulin resistance. Diabetes. 2009;58(5):1133-43.
Zhang L, Rajan V, Lin E, et al. Pharmacological inhibition of myostatin suppresses systemic inflammation and muscle atrophy in mice with chronic kidney disease. The FASEB Journal. 2011;25(5):1653-63.
El-Eshmawy M, Abdel Aal I. Relationships between preptin and osteocalcin in obese, overweight, and normal weight adults. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism. 2015;40(3):218-22.