The Prevalence of a Clinically Silent Nephrolithiasis in Baghdad Population: An Initial Ultrasound Screening Study From Iraq

  • Nadhum L. Tahir Department of Family Medicine, Al-Rusafa Health Director, Baghdad, Iraq.
  • Qays A. Hassan Mail Department of Surgery, Al-kindy College of Medicine, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.
  • Harth M. Kamber Department of Surgery, Al-kindy College of Medicine, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.
Silent stones, Kidney, Prevalence, Screening


Asymptomatic or clinically silent kidney stones are possibly serious because, in their expected passage, they may cause infection, obstruction and renal impairment. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of silent kidney stones in a sample of Baghdad population and consider how this value could affect the justification for a screening system. To our best knowledge, this is the first study of its kind conducted in Iraq. We investigated 714 consecutive patients who sustained an abdominal ultrasound at our hospital with further kidney screening. All these patients did not have clinical signs and symptoms of nephrolithiasis. Age, sex, the indication for ultrasound, the size, side, and the number of the discovered stones were recorded. We observed silent kidney stones in 3.4% of patients. Males were stone carriers mostly. Stones were detected more in the left kidney than the right. Distinctly, multiple stones and stones of a large size were minimally seen. We conclude that the prevalence of clinically silent nephrolithiasis of 3.4% does not support a global screening. Yet, this screening may be justified in a limited pattern for those male subjects higher than 50 years, having a positive family history of renal stones, and their socioeconomic status is granted.


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How to Cite
Tahir NL, Hassan QA, Kamber HM. The Prevalence of a Clinically Silent Nephrolithiasis in Baghdad Population: An Initial Ultrasound Screening Study From Iraq. Acta Med Iran. 57(1):51-56.