Epidemiology and Risk Factors of Cancer Among Children and Adolescents in Sulaimani City: A Case-Control Study.

  • Niaz Mustafa Kamal Mail Department of Anesthesia, Technical College of Health, Sulaimani Polytechnic University, Sulaimani, Iraq.
  • Mardian Othman Abdul Qadir Department of Community Health, Technical College of Health, Sulaimani Polytechnic University, Sulaimani, Iraq.
  • Bestun Ibrahim Hama Rahim Department of Community Health, Sulaimani Technical Institute, Sulaimani Polytechnic University, Sulaimani, Iraq.
  • Abdulrahman M. Ibrahem General Directorate of Health in Sulaimani, Sulaimani Technical Institute, Sulaimani, Iraq.
  • Burhan Karadaghy Department of Community Health, Technical College of Health, Sulaimani Polytechnic University, Sulaimani, Iraq.
Cancer, Children, Lymphoma, Sulaimani, Osteosarcoma


Cancer can be defined as an abnormal growth of cells that can spread inside the body and affect many tissues and organs in different forms. It is a group of diseases that happen when abnormal cells grow and spread quickly. The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalent types of cancer and the risk factors associated with disease among children in Sulaimani city. The main part of this research was a hospital-based case-control study. The sample included 100 children aged 0-16 years (50 cases and 50 controls). The study was conducted in Sulaimani Hiwa Hospital and Pediatric Teaching Hospital from 1st January to 1st May 2018. Data on the exposed risk factors were obtained from face to face interview with the mother's cases and controls. Data was entered into Epidat version 3. Data were analyzed using STATA 11. Descriptive and percentages were used for Socio-demographic variables, odds ratios were used to determining potential risk factors, and P less and equal to 0.05 was estimated as statistically significant. The mean age of children was 46.2 (SD 42.7) months and the mean age of the mothers at the time of pregnancy was 28.4 (SD 6.7) years. Overall, there were 61 males and 39 females in the study. The commonest types were ALL (30%) while the less common types were osteosarcoma (4%). The risk factors linked to cancer were cesarean section (odds 2.7, P=0.02), family history (odds 10.8, P=0.008), mothers exposed to pesticides and chemicals during pregnancy (odds 3.0, P=0.01), (odds 6, P=0.0006) respectively, children exposed to pesticide (odds 5.4, P=0.02), exposed to passive smoke have similar odds (odds 3.0, P=0.01). Children's caffeine consumption (odds 2.3, P=0.04) and fast food (odds 3.0, P=0.01). In general, to control and prevent cancer among children, it is highlighting the need for communication and education mothers to aware about potential risk factors that lead to cancer. Furthermore, studies with larger sample size are required to determine other risk factors for cancer.


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How to Cite
Mustafa Kamal N, Othman Abdul Qadir M, Ibrahim Hama Rahim B, M. Ibrahem A, Karadaghy B. Epidemiology and Risk Factors of Cancer Among Children and Adolescents in Sulaimani City: A Case-Control Study. Acta Med Iran. 57(3):184-193.