Non-Symmetric Bilateral Three Headed-Biceps Brachii
Anatomical muscles’ variation may face clinician and surgeon with some dilemmas. Obviously, reporting a rare case of variations could explore some unexplained and unexpected clinical symptoms. Bilateral three head biceps, which had a supernumerary head with different origins in both right and left arms, is reported in this case report article. The crucial importance of arm muscles variations’ is because of their adjacent location to brachial nerve plexus and brachial vessels. Every single alteration in the direction of anatomical elements could result in pressure on nerve or vessels with clinical symptoms. Taken together, investigation and popularization of variations make a well-knowledged background for clinicians and surgeons.
Nakatani T, Tanaka S, Mizukami S. Bilateral four‐headed biceps brachii muscles: The median nerve and brachial artery passing through a tunnel formed by a muscle slip from the accessory head. Clinical Anatomy: The Official Journal of the American Association of Clinical Anatomists and the British Association of Clinical Anatomists. 1998;11(3):209-12.
Standring S. Gray's anatomy e-book: the anatomical basis of clinical practice: Elsevier Health Sciences; 2015.
Snell RS. Clinical anatomy by regions: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011.
Asvat R, Candler P, Sarmiento E. High incidence of the third head of biceps brachii in South African populations. Journal of anatomy. 1993;182(Pt 1):101.
Warner J, Paletta GA, Warren RF. Accessory head of the biceps brachii. Case report demonstrating clinical relevance. Clinical orthopaedics and related research. 1992 (280):179-81.
Romanes GJ, Cunningham DJ. Cunningham's Manual of Practical Anatomy: Zahlr. Ill. U. Graph. Darst: Oxford University Press; 1986.
Sookur PA, Naraghi AM, Bleakney RR, Jalan R, Chan O, White LM. Accessory muscles: anatomy, symptoms, and radiologic evaluation. Radiographics. 2008;28(2):481-99.
Khaledpour C. Anomalies of the biceps muscle of the arm. Anatomischer Anzeiger. 1985;158(1):79-85.
Vazquez T, Rodríguez-Niedenführ M, Parkin I, Sanudo J. A rare case of a four-headed biceps brachii muscle with a double piercing by the musculocutaneous nerve. Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy. 2003;25(5-6):462-4.
Testut L. Signification anatomique du chef huméral du muscle biceps. Bull Mem Soc Anthropol Paris. 1883;6:233-45.
Kosugi K, Shibata S, Yamashita H. Supernumerary head of biceps brachii and branching pattern of the musculocutaneus nerve in Japanese. Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy. 1992;14(2):175-85.
Abu‐Hijleh MF. Three‐headed biceps brachii muscle associated with duplicated musculocutaneous nerve. Clinical Anatomy: The Official Journal of the American Association of Clinical Anatomists and the British Association of Clinical Anatomists. 2005;18(5):376-9.
Poudel P, Bhattarai C. Study on the supernumerary heads of biceps brachii muscle in Nepalese. Nepal Med Coll J. 2009;11(2):96-8.
Kumar H, Das S, Rath G. An anatomical insight into the third head of biceps brachii muscle. Bratislavské lekárske listy. 2008;109(2):76.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.