Association Between Depression and Chronic Complications in Clients With Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury

  • Mahsa Ghajarzadeh Department of Neurosurgery, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
  • Hooshang Saberi Mail Brain and Spinal Cord Injury Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Spinal cord injury, Complications, Iran


The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between depression and chronic complications, in clients with traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI). Eight hundred and thirty Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury (TSCI) patients were enrolled in this study. All cases filled up the Valid and Reliable Persian version of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Each patient was examined by a constant neurosurgeon, and a TSCI research fellow to determine the level of injury, AIS (ASIA impairment scale) grade, and chronic complications. Eight hundred and thirty individuals participated in the study. Mean Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM) score was 57.5±20 in cases with BDI<10, while it was 57.2±15.6 in patients with 9<BDI<19, 55.5±16.3 in cases with 19≤BDI<30 and 52.3±14.9 in cases with BDI≥30 (P=0.02). Also, the prevalence of pressure ulcers, neuropathic pain, spasm, suicide attempts, and sexual dysfunction were significantly higher among cases with major depression (BDI≥30). Mean visual analogue scale (VAS) was significantly higher and mean SCIM was significantly lower in patients with BDI≥30. There was a significant negative correlation between SCIM and BDI scores (r=-0.5, P=0.004) and significant positive correlation between VAS and BDI (r=0.65, P=0.04). Depression is an important risk factor in patients with TSCI for development of secondary complications. Chronic complications and greater functional dependency were observed more frequently in cases with BDI≥10.


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How to Cite
Ghajarzadeh M, Saberi H. Association Between Depression and Chronic Complications in Clients With Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury. Acta Med Iran. 56(11):704-709.