Anxiety in the Operating Room Before Elective Surgery
The experience of pre-operative anxiety in patients is a common and accepted issue; however, anxiety can potentially increase the patients' need for care, the level of post-operative pain, and ultimately patients' morbidity and mortality. The goal of this study was to determine the patients' pre-operative anxiety level right before they undergo surgery in the operating room. This study was conducted as a prospective cross-sectional study. Accordingly, completed State-Trait Anxiety Inventory questionnaires as well as demographic and contextual variables of 230 patients undergoing surgery were evaluated. Data analysis was taken out using SPSS v24. P of less than 0.05 was considered significant. 230 patients with an average age of 48.95 (14.68) years were enrolled. The frequency of mild, moderate, and severe anxiety among the patients was 50.8%, 37%, and 12.2%, respectively. The analysis revealed that the patients' age, gender, occupation, awareness about the type of anesthesia, and place of residence, as well as the type of anesthesia, had no significant correlation with the patients' pre-operative anxiety. However, a significant difference was found regarding patients’ pre-operative anxiety level and their educational, marital, awareness of post-operative complications, and trait anxiety status as well as their history of anesthesia. Therefore, to reduce post-operative complications, it is recommended that the patients with these characteristics be given priority for interventions aimed at reducing pre-operative anxiety.
2. Yilmaz M, Sezer H, Gürler H. Bekar M. Predictors of pre-operative anxiety in surgical inpatients. J Clin Nurs 2012;21:956-64.
3. Boker A.Brownell L. Donen N. The Amsterdam pre-operative anxiety and information scale provides a simple and reliable measure of pre-operative anxiety. Can J Anaesth 2002:49:792-8.
4. Jawaid M, Mushtaq A, Mukhtar S, Khan Z. Pre-operative anxiety before elective surgery. Neurosciences 2007;12:145-8.
5. Egan K, Ready L. Nessly M, Greer B. Self-administration of midazolam for post-operative anxiety: a double blinded study. Pain 1992:49:3-8.
6. Berth H, Petrowski K, Balck F. The Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS)-the first trial of a German version. Psychosoc Med 2007;4.
7. Kindler CH, Harms C, Amsler F, Ihde-Scholl T, Scheidegger D. The visual analog scale allows effective measurement of pre-operative anxiety and detection of patients' anesthetic concerns. Anesth Analg 2000:90:706-12.
8. Pekcan M. Celebioglu B, Demir B, Saricnoglu F. Hascelik G, Yukselen MA, et al. The effect of premedication on pre-operative anxiety. Middle East J Anaesthesiol 2005;18:421-33.
9. Haugen AS, Eide GE, Olsen MV, Haukeland B, Remme XR, Wahl AK. Anxiety in the operating theatre: a study of frequency and environmental impact in patients having local, plexus or regional anesthesia, J Clin Nurs 2009;18:2301-10.
10. Moerman N. van Dam FS, Muller MJ, Oosting H. The Amsterdam pre-operative anxiety and information scale (APAIS). Anesth Analg 1996;82:445-51
11. Nishimori M. Moerman N. Fokuhara S, Van Dam F. Muller M, Hanaoka K, et al. Translation and validation of the Amsterdam pre-operative anxiety and information scale (APAIS) for use in Japan. Qual Life Res 2002;11:361-4.
12. Shafer A, Fish MP, Gregg KM. Scavello J. Kosek P. Pre-operative anxiety and fear a comparison of assessments by patients and anesthesia and surgery residents. Anesth Analg 1996;83:1285-91.
13. Karanci A, Dirik G. Predictors of pre-and post-operative anxiety in emergency surgery patients. J Psychosom Res 2003;55:363-9.
14. Kain ZN, Caldwell-Andrews AA, Maranets I. McClain B, Gaal D, Mayes LC, et al. Pre-operative anxiety and emergence delirium and post-operative maladaptive behaviors. Anesth Analg 2004;99:1648-54.
15. Sadati L, Pazouki A, Mehdizadeh A. Shoar S, Tamannaie Z, Chaichian S. Effect of pre-operative nursing visit on pre-operative anxiety and post-operative complications in candidates for laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a randomized clinical trial. Scand J Caring Sci 2013:27:994-8.
16. Jafar MF, Khan FA. Frequency of pre-operative anxiety in Pakistani surgical patients. J Pak Med Assoc 2009;59:359-63.
17. Homzová P, Zelenikova R. Measuring pre-operative anxiety in patients undergoing elective surgery in Czech Republic, Cent Eur J Nurs and Midw 2015;6:321-6.
18. Caumo W. Schmidt AP, Schneider CN, Bergmann J. Iwamoto CW, Bandeira D, et al. Risk factors for pre-operative anxiety in adults. Acta anaesthesiol Scand 2001;45:298-307.
19. Karanci AN, Dirik G. Predictors of pre- and post-operative anxiety in emergency surgery patients. J Psychosom Res 2003;55:363-9.
20. Pokharel K, Bhattarai B. Tripathi M, Khatiwada S, Subedi A. Nepalese patients' anxiety and concerns before surgery. J Clin Anesth 2011;23:372-8.
21. Badner NH, Nielson WR, Munk S, Kwiatkowska C, Gelb AW. Pre-operative anxiety: detection and contributing factors. Can J Anaesth 1990;37:444-7.
22. Conceição D, Schonhorst L, José da Conceição M, de Oliveira Filho G. Heart rate and blood pressure are not good parameters to evaluate pre-operative anxiety. Revista brasileira de anestesiologia 2005;54:769-73.
23. Sjoling M, Nordahl G, Olofsson N, Asplund K. The impact of pre-operative information on state anxiety, post-operative pain and satisfaction with pain management. Patient Educ Couns 2003;51:169-76.
24. Carroll JK, Cullinan E, Clarke L, Davis NF. The role of anxiolytic premedication in reducing pre-operative anxiety. Br J Nurs 2012;21:479-83.
25. Arslan S, Ozer N, Ozyurt F. Effect of music on pre-operative anxiety in men undergoing urogenital surgery. Aust J Adv Nurs. 2008;26:46.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.