Study on Anticardiolipin Antibodies in Women With Recurrent Abortion in Duhok Province, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
Recurrent abortion is a worldwide issue. Anticardiolipin antibodies (ACA) are found to be among the most important factors related to recurrent spontaneous early pregnancy loss. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of anticardiolipin IgM and IgG antibodies in women with recurrent abortion in Kurdistan Region of Iraq. The present study was conducted in Duhok and Zakho cities for the period from April 2014 to May 2019. A total of 1230 women aged between 18 to 46-year-old were included in this study. ELISA was used for the detection of anticardiolipin antibodies. Among the studied subjects, the prevalence of anticardiolipin antibodies was 74 (6.02%) for ACA IgM and 56 (4.6%) for ACA IgG. It was also observed that 16 (1.3%) subjects were positive for both ACA IgM and IgG antibodies. Additionally, the highest anticardiolipin antibody positivity rates were recorded in patients older than 30-year-old (P<0.01). The IgM ACA positivity was higher in Zakho city 45 (7.2%) when compared to Duhok city 29 (4.6%) (P<0.04). In conclusion, anticardiolipin antibodies can have a positive association among women with recurrent abortion. Therefore, it is suggested that women with recurrent abortion should be screened for anticardiolipin antibodies; this could increase fetal survival by initiating early anticoagulant therapy when other causes of abortion are excluded.
2. Kutteh, W.H., N.S. Rote, and R. Silver, Antiphospholipid antibodies and reproduction: the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. Am J Reprod Immunol, 1999. 41(2): p. 133-52.
3. Gracia, C.R., et al., Risk factors for spontaneous abortion in early symptomatic first-trimester pregnancies. Obstet Gynecol, 2005. 106(5 Pt 1): p. 993-9.
4. Heilmann, L., G.F. von Tempelhoff, and K. Pollow, Antiphospholipid syndrome in obstetrics. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost, 2003. 9(2): p. 143-50.
5. de Godoy, J.M., et al., Prevalence of anticardiolipin antibodies in peripheral arterial thrombosis. Angiology, 2000. 51(6): p. 473-7.
6. Ong, S.G., et al., IgG anti-beta(2) glycoprotein I antibodies in Malaysian patients with antiphospholipid syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosus: prevalence and clinical correlations. Clin Rheumatol, 2002. 21(5): p. 382-5.
7. Velayuthaprabhu, S. and G. Archunan, Evaluation of anticardiolipin antibodies and antiphosphatidylserine antibodies in women with recurrent abortion. Indian J Med Sci, 2005. 59(8): p. 347-52.
8. Naqid, I.A., S.H. Yousif, and N.R. Hussein, Serological Study of IgG and IgM Antibodies to Cytomegalovirus and Toxoplasma Infections in Pregnant Women in Zakho City, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Women’s Health Bulletin, 2019. 6(4): p. 8-12.
9. Hussein, N. and A.A. Balatay The Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma, Cytomegalovirus and Rubella Infections in Women with Abortion in Kurdistan Region of Iraq: A Brief Report. Int J Infect, 2019. 6(1): p. e86734.
10. Kupferminc, M.J., Thrombophilia and pregnancy. Reprod Biol Endocrinol, 2003. 1: p. 111.
11. Couto, E., et al., Anticardiolipin antibody in recurrent spontaneous aborting and fertile women. Sao Paulo Medical Journal, 1998. 116.
12. Abdulaziz, S., M. Gumaa, and A. Ahmed, Prevalence of anticardiolipin antibodies among women with recurrent miscarriage. International Journal of Advanced Scientific and Technical Research, 2016. 6.
13. Levine, S.R., et al., IgG anticardiolipin antibody titer > 40 GPL and the risk of subsequent thrombo-occlusive events and death. A prospective cohort study. Stroke, 1997. 28(9): p. 1660-5.
14. Arnout, J. and J. Vermylen, Current status and implications of autoimmune antiphospholipid antibodies in relation to thrombotic disease. J Thromb Haemost, 2003. 1(5): p. 931-42.
15. Yaseen Al-Khayat, Z.A., N.E. Waheda, and N.F. Shaker, The prevalence of positive serum anticardiolipin antibodies and asymptomatic bacteriuria in women with recurrent abortions. Eurasian J Med, 2013. 45(1): p. 39-42.
16. Jwad, I.M., N.K. Mahdi, and M.S. Flafil, Anticardiolipin antibody in women with recurrent spontaneous miscarriage. Saudi Med J, 2006. 27(9): p. 1387-90.
17. Fialova, L., et al., Prevalence of various antiphospholipid antibodies in pregnant women. Physiol Res, 2000. 49(3): p. 299-305.
18. Vinatier, D., et al., Antiphospholipid syndrome and recurrent miscarriages. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 2001. 96(1): p. 37-50.
19. Ebadi, P., et al., The Prevalence of Anticardiolipin and Antisperm Antibodies in Patients with Recurrent Spontaneous Abortion. Iran Red Crescent Med J, 2010. 12(5): p. 582-584.
20. Lakos, G., et al., International consensus guidelines on anticardiolipin and anti-beta2-glycoprotein I testing: report from the 13th International Congress on Antiphospholipid Antibodies. Arthritis Rheum, 2012. 64(1): p. 1-10.
21. Raza, B.M., S.S. Hamad, and I.S. Ahmed, Study the relationship between aborted women infected with Toxoplasma gondii and Anticardiolipin antibodies in Kirkuk city/ Iraq. Energy Procedia, 2019. 157: p. 307-311.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.