Personality Disorders and Unhealthy Lifestyle: A Cross-Sectional Study


Personality disorders (PDs) would be associated with an unhealthy lifestyle. To date, however, there have not been sufficient studies on the relationship between them. This study aimed to investigate the association between personality disorders and an unhealthy lifestyle by using an analytical cross-sectional study. We selected 1538 married women based on the multistage cluster sampling method. We used the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI) and Lifestyle Questionnaire (LSQ). Apart from descriptive statistics, a one-sample t-test, multivariate analysis, and structural equation modeling were used. Analysis of the data suggested that negativistic (β= -0.321), schizotypal (β= -0.285), schizoid (β= -0.159), borderline (β= -0.136), melancholic (β= -0.079) PDs had a significant association with an unhealthy lifestyle, respectively. Cluster A personality disorders were prone to an unhealthy lifestyle more than the other two clusters.

1. Putnam RD. Bowling alone: The collapse and revival of American community. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 2000.
2. Wilber K. Integral Psychology. Boston, MA: Shambhala, 2000.
3. Walsh R. Lifestyle and mental health. Am Psychol 2011;66;7:579-92.
4. Olsson I, Dahl AA. Avidant personality problems-their association with somatic and mental health, lifestyle, and social network: A community-based study. Compr Psychiatry 2012;53:813-21.
5. Goldstein RB, Dawson DA, Stinson FS, Ruan WJ, Chou SP, Pickering RP, et al. Antisocial behavioral syndromes and body mass index among adults in the United States: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Compr Psychiatry 2008;49:225-37.
6. Mather AA, Cox BJ, Enns MW, Sareen J. Associations between body weight and personality disorders in a nationally representative sample. Psychosom Med 2008;70:1012-9.
7. Petry NM, Barry D, Pietrzak RH, Wagner JA. Overweight and obesity are associated with psychiatric disorders: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Psychosom Med 2008,70;3:288-97.
8. Pickering RP, Grant BF, Chou SP, & Compton WM. Are overweight, obesity, and extreme obesity associated with psychopathology? Results from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions. J Clin Psychiatry 2007;68:998-1009.
9. American Psychological Association. APA Dictionary of Psychology, 2nd Ed. Washington, DC: Author, 2015.
10. Matsumoto D. The Cambridge dictionary of psychology. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009.
11. Millon T, Millon C, Davis R, Grossman S. Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III manual, 3rd Ed. Minneapolis, MN: Pearson Education, Inc., 2006.
12. Morey LC. Measuring personality and psychopathology. In: Schinka JA, Velicer WF, eds. Handbook of psychology: Research methods in psychology, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2003:377-406.
13. Choca JP. Interpretive guide to the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory, 3rd Ed. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2004.
14. Blais MA, Jr Holdwick DJ, McLean RYS, Otto MW, Pollack MH, Hilsenroth MJ. Exploring the psychometric properties and construct validity of the MCMI-III anxiety and avoidant personality scales. J Pers Assess 2003;81:237-41.
15. Lali M, Abedi A, Kajbaf MB. Construction and validation of the lifestyle questionnaire (LSQ). Psychol Res 2012;15;64-80.
16. Powers AD, Oltmanns TF. Personality disorders and physical health: A longitudinal examination of physical functioning, healthcare utilization, and health-related behaviors in middle-aged adults. J Pers Disord 2012;26:524-38.
17. Czekoova K, Shaw DJ, Urbanek T. Personality systems, spirituality, and existential wellbeing: A person-centered perspective. Psycholog Relig Spiritual 2018;10:307-17.
18. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical manual of mental disorders, 5th Ed. Washington, DC: Author, 2013.
19. Sadock BJ, Sadock VA. Kaplan & Sadock's synopsis of psychiatry: Behavioral science/clinical psychiatry, 9th Ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2003.
20. Trull TJ, Widiger TA. Personality disorders. In: Stricker G & Widiger TA, eds. Handbook of psychology: Clinical psychology. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2003:149-72.
21. Sanderson C, Clarkin JF. Use of the NEO-PI personality dimensions in differential treatment planning. In: Costa PT & Widiger TA, eds. Personality disorders and the five-factor model of personality. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 1994:219-35.
22. Stone MH. Abnormalities of personality: Within and beyond the realm treatment. New York: Norton, 1993.
23. Abbott GR, Byrne Do M, Byrne LK. Diminished subjective wellbeing in schizotypy is more than just negative. Pers Individ Dif 2012;52:914-8.
24. Gerlach G, Loeber S, Herpertz S. Personality disorders and obesity: a systematic review. Obes Rev 2016;17;691-723.
25. Cramer V, Torgersen S, Kringlen E. Socio-demographic conditions, subjective somatic health, axis I disorders and personality disorders in the common population: the relationship to quality of life. J Pers Disord 2007;21:552-67.
26. Skodol AE, Gunderson JG, McGlashan TH, Dyck IR, Stout RL, Bender DS, et al. Functional impairment in patients with schizotypal, borderline, avoidant, or obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. Am J Psychiatry 2002;159:276-83.
27. Miller MB, Useda JD, Trull TJ, Burr RM, Minks-Brown C. Paranoid, schizoid, and schizotypal personality disorders. In: Sutker PB, Adams HE, eds. Comprehensive handbook of psychopathology. 3rd ed. New York: Plenum, 2001:535-58.
28. Cramer V, Torgersen S, Kringlen E. Personality disorders and quality of life: A population study. Compr Psychiatry 2006;47:178-84.
29. Carrasco JL, Lecic-Tosevski D. Specific types of personality disorders. In: Gelder MG, LopezIbor JJ, Andreasen N, eds. New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000:927-53.
30. Alperin RM. Barriers to intimacy: An object relations perspective. Psychoanal Psychol 2001;18:137-56.
31. Hill J et al. Attachment, borderline personality, and romantic relationship dysfunction. J Pers Disord 2011;25:789-805.
32. Sansone RA, Kelley AR, Forbis JS. Religion/spirituality status and borderline personality symptomatology among outpatients in an internal medicine clinic. Int J Psychiatry Clin Pract 2012;16:48-52.
33. Koenig HG, King DE, Carson VB. Handbook of religion and health, 2nd ed. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2012.
34. Sansone RA, Sansone LA. The relationship between borderline personality and obesity. Innov Clin Neurosci 2013;10:36-40.
35. Sadock BJ, Sadock VA, Ruiz P. Kaplan and Sadock's synopsis of psychiatry: Behavioral sciences/clinical psychiatry, 11th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2014.
36. Hill LL, Lauzon VL, Winbrock EL, Li G, Chihuri S, Lee KC. Depression, antidepressants and driving safety. Inj Epidemiol 2017;4:10.
37. Thorsen L, Nystad W, Stigum H, Dahl O, Klepp O, Bremnes RM, et al. The association between self-reported physical activity and prevelance of depression and anxiety disorder in long-term survivors of testicular cancer and men in a general population sample. Support Care Cancer 2005;13;637-46.
38. Huprich SK, Frisch MB. The depressive personality disorder inventory and its relationship to quality of life, hopefulness, and optimism. J Pers Assess 2004;83:22-8.
IssueVol 59, No 3 (2021) QRcode
Millon clinical multiaxial inventory Personality disorders Unhealthy lifestyle

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
Mohammadi MR, Pourdehghan P, Mostafavi S-A, Hooshyari Z, Alavi SS, Khaleghi A, Ahmadi A, Mahmoudi-Gharaei J, Fadaei Fooladi M, Akbarpoor S, Mobini M. Personality Disorders and Unhealthy Lifestyle: A Cross-Sectional Study. Acta Med Iran. 2021;59(3):161-168.