Monitoring Temperature in Children Under General Anesthesia: Nasopharynx Versus Carotid Artery Surface
Continuous body temperature monitoring during anesthesia in children is very important. Hypothermia in children may lead to higher morbidity and mortality. Measurement points to detect the temperature of core body are not simply accessible. In this study we measured the skin temperature over the carotid artery and compared it with the nasopharynx. Totally, 84 children of 2-10 years undergoing elective surgery were selected. Temperature over the carotid artery and nasopharynx was measured during anesthesia. Mean temperature of these points was compared which each other, and the effects of age, sex, and weight change of temperature during anesthesia were evaluated. The mean age of patients was 5.4±2.6 years s. 37% of patients were female, and 63% were male. The mean weight was 20±7 kg. The mean duration of surgery was 60.45±6.65 min. The temperature of the skin and nasopharynx was decreased during surgery as after 60 min, the deference between skin over the carotid artery and the nasopharyngeal area was 1° C. The bodyweight has a significant effect on carotid skin temperature in regression model. Skin temperature over the carotid artery, with a simple correction factor of+1° C, provides a viable noninvasive estimate of nasopharyngeal temperature in children during elective surgery with a general anesthetic.
2. Reynolds L, Beckmann J, Kurz A. Perioperative complications of hypothermia. Best practice & research Clinical anaesthesiology. 2008 Dec 1;22(4):645-57.
3. Batra P, Saha A, Faridi MM. Thermometry in children. Journal of emergencies, trauma, and shock. 2012 Jul;5(3):246.
4. Sessler DI. Temperature monitoring and perioperative thermoregulation. Anesthesiology: The Journal of the American Society of Anesthesiologists. 2008 Aug 1;109(2):318-38.
5. 5-Sessler DI. Temperature monitoring and perioperative thermoregulation. Anesthesiology. 2008;109(2):318–38.
6. Mance MJ. Keeping infants warm: challenges of hypothermia. Adv Neonatal Care. 2008;8(1):6–12.
7. Hannenberg AA, Sessler DI. Improving perioperative temperature management. Anesth Analg. 2008;107(5):1454–7.
8. Bissonnette B, Sessler DI. The thermoregulatory threshold in infants and children anesthetized with isoflurane and caudal bupivacaine. Anesthesiology. 1990;73(6):1114–8.
9. Bissonnette B, Sessler DI. Thermoregulatory thresholds for vasoconstriction in pediatric patients anesthetized with halothane or halothane and caudal bupivacaine. Anesthesiology. 1992;76(3):387–92.
10. Bissonnette B. Temperature monitoring in pediatric anesthesia. Int Anesthesiol Clin. 1992;30(3):63–76.
11. 11. Leslie K, Sessler DI. Perioperative hypothermia in the high-risk surgical patient. Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol. 2003;17(4):485–98.
12. Sessler DI. Forced-air warming in infants and children. Paediatr Anaesth. 2013;23(6):467–8.
13. Witt L, Dennhardt N, Eich C, Mader T, Fischer T, Brauer A, et al. Prevention of intraoperative hypothermia in neonates and infants: results of a prospective multicenter observational study with a new forced-air warming system with increased warm air flow. Paediatr Anaesth. 2013;23(6):469–74.
14. Rajagopalan S, Mascha E, Na J, Sessler DI. The effects of mild perioperative hypothermia on blood loss and transfusion requirement. Anesthesiology. 2008;108(1):71–7.
15. Cote CJ, Lerman J, Todres ID. A Practice of Anesthesia for Infants and Children: Expert Consult. Philadelphia: Elsevier Health Sciences; 2012.
16. Doufas AG. Consequences of inadvertent perioperative hypothermia. Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol. 2003;17(4):535–49.
17. Imani F, Rouzbahani HR, Goudarzi M, Tarrahi MJ, Soltani AE. Skin Temperature Over the Carotid Artery, an Accurate Non-invasive Estimation of Near Core Temperature. Anesthesiology and pain medicine. 2016 Feb;6(1).
18. Jay O, Molgat‐Seon Y, Chou S, Murto K. Skin temperature over the carotid artery provides an accurate noninvasive estimation of core temperature in infants and young children during general anesthesia. Pediatric Anesthesia. 2013 Dec;23(12):1109-16.
|Issue||Vol 59, No 11 (2021)|
|Body temperature Intraoperative thermometry Skin temperature Pediatric thermal management Core temperature|
|Rights and permissions|
|This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.|