The Effect of Educational Intervention on Anxiety and Quality of Life Among Individuals Referring to Healthcare Centers in the Face of COVID-19
Educational interventions are helpful strategies to empower communities encountering the threat of pandemics like Covid-19. This study was carried out to examine the effect of educational intervention on anxiety control and improvement in public quality of life. A quasi-experimental study. The study was conducted among individuals referred to healthcare centers of Qazvin province, Iran, in 2020. Given that Qazvin consists of nine urban healthcare centers, two centers were selected by a simple random selection method. After considering inclusion and exclusion mentioned criteria, 240 individuals were selected to participate in the research and were randomly assigned into two groups of experimental and control. Following the educational intervention, all study variables, including knowledge score, anxiety level, and quality of life, improved significantly in the experimental group compared to the pre-intervention phase (P<0.05). The most significant change was in knowledge score with a nearly large effect size (0.63), presenting an increase of 40.09% from 11.1 to 18.8 exactly after intervention and 12.2 after passing one month from the date of educational intervention; while the quality of life presented a 3.2% increase with a small effect size (0.28). Our findings have implications for the development and implementation of psychological interventions, particularly educational programs. During the outbreak, such strategies can empower the public and diminish the negative emotional effects of the pandemic, helping people to cope with the current situation, and decrease the risk of suffering future psychological disorders.
2. McCarthy J. U.S. coronavirus concerns surge, government trust slides (2020). (Accessed 2020, at https://news.gallup.com/poll/295505/coronavirus-worries-surge.aspx Google Scholar.)
3. Hofmann S, Wu J, Boettcher H. Effect of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety Disorders on Quality of Life: A Meta-Analysis. J Consult Clin Psychol 2014;82:375-91.
4. Zhong BL, Luo W, Li HM, Zhang QQ, Liu XG, Li WT, et al. Knowledge attitudes, and practices towards COVID-19 among Chinese residents during the rapid rise period of the COVID-19 outbreak: a quick online cross-sectional survey. Int J Biol Sci 2020;16:1745-52.
5. Al-Mohaissen M. Awareness among a Saudi Arabian university community of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus following an outbreak. East Mediterr Health J 2017;23:351-60.
6. Xiang YT, Li W, Zhang Q, Jin Y, Rao WW, Zeng LN, et al. Timely research papers about COVID-19 in China. Lancet 2020;395:684-5.
7. Rajkumar RP. COVID-19 and mental health: a review of the existing literature. Asian J Psychiatr 2020;52:102066.
8. Dubey N, Podder P, Pandey D. Knowledge of COVID-19 and Its Influence on Mindfulness, Cognitive Emotion Regulation and Psychological Flexibility in the Indian Community Front Psychol 2020;11:589365.
9. Ju Y, Zhang Y, Wang X, Li W, Ng RMK, Li L. China’s mental health support in response to COVID-19: progression, challenges and reflection. Global Health 2020;16:102.
10. Baruah TD. Effectiveness of Social Media as a tool of communication and its potential for technology enabled connections: A micro-level study. Int J Sci Res Pub 2012;2:1-10
11. Vatansever D, Wang S, Sahakian BJ. Covid-19 and promising solutions to combat symptoms of stress, anxiety and depression. Neuropsychopharmacology 2020;46:217-8.
12. Nooh HZ, Alshammary RH, Alenezy JM, Alrowaili NH, Alsharari AJ, Alenzi NM, et al. Public awareness of Coronavirus in Al-Jouf region, Saudi Arabia. Z Gesundh Wiss 2020;1-8.
13. Spielberger CD. State-Trait Anxiety Inventory: Bibliography (2nd ed.). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press, 1989
14. World Health Organization's. Quality of Life group: WHOQOL-sBREF Introduction. Administration and Scoring. Field Trial version, 1996
15. Alanezi F, Aljahdali A, Alyousef S, Alrashed H, Alshaikh W, Mushcab H, et al. Implications of Public Understanding of COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia for Fostering Effective Communication Through Awareness Framework. Front Public Health 2020;8:494.
16. Brooks SK, Webster RK, Smith LE, Woodland L, Wessely S, Greenberg N, et al. The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: rapid review of the evidence. Lancet 2020; 395:912-20.
17. Bao Y, Sun Y, Meng S, Shi J, Lu L. 2019-nCoV epidemic: address mental health care to empower society. Lancet 2020;395:e37-8.
18. Alnajjar N, Farahat F.M, Al-Thaqafi A. Psychobehavioural responses to the 2014 Middle East respiratory syndromenovel corona virus (MERS CoV) among adults in two shopping malls in Jeddah, western Saudi Arabia. East Mediterr Health J 2016; 22:817-23.
19. Singh AK, Agrawal B, Sharma A, Sharma P. COVID-19: Assessment of knowledge and awareness in Indian society. J Public Aff 2020;e2354.
20. Tripathi R, Alqahtani SS, Albarraq AA, Meraya AM, Tripathi P, Banji D. Awareness and Preparedness of COVID-19 Outbreak among Healthcare Workers and Other Residents of South-West Saudi Arabia: A Cross-Sectional Survey. Front. Public Health 2020;8:482.
21. Salari N, Hosseinian-Far A, Jalali R, Vaisi-Raygani A, Rasoulpoor S, Mohammadi M. Prevalence of stress, anxiety, depression among the general population during theCOVID-19 pandemic: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Global Health 2020;16:57.
22. Gongora-Ortega J, Segovia-Bernal Y, Valdivia-Martinez Jde J, Galaviz-DeAnda JM, Prado-Aguilar CA. Educational interventions to improve the effectiveness in clinical competence of general practitioners: problem-based versus critical reading-based learning. BMC Med Educ 2012;12:53.
23. Cusack L, Del Mar CB, Chalmers I, Gibson E, Hoffmann TC. Educational interventions to improve people’s understanding of key concepts in assessing the effects of health interventions: a systematic review. Syst Rev 2018;7:68.
24. Kaim A, Jaffe E, Siman-Tor M, Khairish E. Impact of a Brief Educational Intervention on Knowledge, Perceived Knowledge, Perceived Safety, and Resilience of the Public During COVID-19 Crisis. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17:5971.
25. Elgzar WT, Al-Qahtani AM, Elfeki NK, Ibrahim H. COVID-19 Outbreak: Effect of an Educational Intervention Based on Health Belief Model on Nursing Students' Awareness and Health Beliefs at Najran University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Afr J Reprod Health 2020;24:78-86.
26. Zhou, X. Psychological crisis interventions in Sichuan Province during the 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak. Psychiatry Res 2020;286:112895.
27. Cooper J. Mental health and psychosocial support in the face of Ebola in Liberia: The personal and professional intersect. Pers acc Interv 2015;13:49-57.
28. Sotoudeh H.G, Alavi SS, Akbari Z, Jannatifard F, Artounian V. The effect of brief crisis intervention package on improving quality of life and mental health in patients with COVID-19. Iran J Psychiatry 2020;15:205-12.
29. Wei N, Huang B, Lu S. Efficacy of internet-based integrated intervention on depression and anxiety symptoms in patients with COVID-19. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 2020;1581:1-5.
30. Li S, Wang Y, Xue J, Zhao N, Zhu T. The impact of COVID-19 epidemic declaration on psychological consequences: a study of active Weibo users. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020;17:2032
|Issue||Vol 59, No 8 (2021)|
|Educational intervention Anxiety Quality of life Knowledge Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19)|
|Rights and permissions|
|This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.|