A. R. Dehpour, PharmD, PhD
A. Javadian, MD
Vol 55, No 10 (2017)
We previously developed an influenza virus like particle with HA, M, and NA proteins using Bac-to-Bac expression system and SF9 cell line. To evaluate the immunogenicity of our construct, we assessed the humoral, cytokine induced by H1N1-VLP in BALB/c mice immunized intranasally and intramuscularly. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Relative quantitative real-time PCR were used to evaluate the antibody (IgG and IgA) and mRNA levels of IL-6, IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-g in PBMCs. Our results showed that VLP was capable of intranasal (I.N.) and intramuscular (I.M.) induction of serum IgG and IgA responses. Interestingly, I.N. route induced higher IgG and IgA titer than I.M. route, which was statistically significant. Moreover, mRNA levels of IL-6 (4.2-4.5 folds), IFN-g (5.5-5.7 folds), and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 (2.5-3 folds) and IL-4 (2.4-2.8 folds) were significantly elevated in mice immunized I.N. and I.M. with H1N1-VLP compared to the control group. Our findings indicated that a non-infectious genome-less VLP approach mimics parenteral virus with multiple viral antigens and epitopes that stimulate a diverse set of immune responses such as innate immunity, specific serum IgG antibody, cell-mediated immunity, and local antibodies.
Idiopathic leg edema is subject to a lot of debates among physicians. Recently sleep apnea was stated to be the cause. We sought to investigate this matter in a sample of Iranian patients with idiopathic leg edema. In this case-control study, 110 patients were selected based on our inclusion/exclusion criteria and allocated to the case (with idiopathic edema, n=55) and control (without edema, n=55) groups. Sex, age, weight, height, and body mass index (BMI) of all subjects were recorded. We evaluated daytime somnolence of all patients using Epworth sleepiness scale and then calculated Apnea, hypopnea index (AHI) using ResMed ApneaLink and AHI≥15 were considered as sleep apnea. Age and sex of both groups were not significantly different. Cases had higher BMI than control groups (P=0.03), but they were not significantly different for obesity (P=0.197). AHI was significantly higher in cases (17.85±24.31 vs. 9±7.37 P=0.012). Daytime somnolence (cases 8.18±5.3 vs. controls 6.5±3.3) was also higher in cases. Overall Odds ratio of leg edema and sleep apnea was 3.068 (P=0.025), but it wasn’t significant in the two genders. Idiopathic bilateral leg edema is strongly associated with sleep apnea. Routine sleep apnea assessment in patients with idiopathic bilateral leg edema is recommended for both genders.
Opioid compound and methamphetamine are commonly used in drug abuse; these can disrupt the normal function of cellular and molecular systems, leading to several events such as oxidative stress, aging, apoptosis, and necrosis. Malondialdehyde (MDA) is the most important biomarker for evaluation of oxidative stress and determination of lipid peroxidation. In this study, 42 drug abusers and 22 healthy persons participated as case and control groups, respectively. MDA in volunteer sera was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ﬂuorescence detection after pre-column derivatization using thiobarbituric acid. The analysis was performed on a ODS column by spectrofluorometer detection, operated at excitation of 515 nm and emission of 535 nm. A mixture of phosphate buffer (0.05 M, pH 6.8), containing potassium monobasic phosphate and methanol (60:40, v/v) at a ﬂow rate of 1 ml/min, was used as the mobile phase. The retention time of MDA-TBA was 3.2 min. Our findings showed that the MDA level increased in the opioid and methamphetamine abusers when compared to the control group (P<0.05); however, no significant difference was observed between the opioid and methamphetamine groups. A state of oxidative stress during biological processes leads to lipid peroxidation, DNA damage, biomolecule dysfunctions, and many other diseases. Since it is impossible to eradicate the drug addiction, we should reduce the side effects of drug abuse, such as oxidative stress, by intake of proper nutrition and antioxidants.
Recently suggested that adipocytokines may play a role in pathogenesis and progression of certain cancers, especially in gastric cancer. The previous study showed Resistin and Visfatin, as adipocyte derived hormones, separately increases telomerase (hTERT) gene, the aim of this study is investigating synergic effects of Resistin and Visfatin on telomerase gene expression, in AGS gastric cancer cell line. In this study, human gastric cancer AGS cell line was selected. After stimulation with increasing concentrations of Resistin and Visfatin recombinant proteins for 24 and 48 hours, cell proliferation was assessed by XTT assay. In order to investigate the telomerase gene expression affected by these proteins, total RNA was extracted, cDNA was synthesized, and expression of hTERT mRNA was carried out by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. After Resistin and Visfatin, recombinant proteins treatment was increased the gastric cell line proliferation and expression of Human Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase (hTERT), but co-stimulation with Resistin and Visfatin showed greater inducible effects on cell proliferation and telomerase gene expression in comparison with the stimulatory effect of the individual hormone. This study has shown Resistin, and Visfatin synergistically increased gastric cancer cell proliferation and enhanced the telomerase gene expression. These data showed that these two hormones in gastric cancer tissue could cooperatively accelerate cancer cell growth via enhancing the telomerase expression as a cancer gene.
In recent years the high cost of medicines and the lack of it were one of the major problems in developing countries that despite numerous efforts to solve the root causes of this problem, the issue remains, unfortunately. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the impact of antibiotics and corticosteroids prescription on the medicines expenditures. This was descriptive-analytical study that conducted to assess the function of medical expenditures through prescription letters and analysis the factors affecting medicine expenditures. We used the data of 91,994,667 selected prescription letters that were collected by the Ministry of the Health and Medical Education (MOHME) throughout the country in the year 2011 which was analyzed through a logarithmic regression model and OLS estimator. The average number of prescription items in each prescription letter were varied from 2.7 to 3.6, and the average price of each letter was varied from 30223 to 69986 Rials. Between 39 to 61 percent of prescription letters containing antibiotic items and between 15 and 35% of them contain corticosteroids. Also, the impact of antibiotic and corticosteroid prescriptions on the average expenditure of prescription letters were -1.4 and 0.032 respectively. Excessive and irrational prescribing had the greatest impact on medicine expenditures. On the other hand, the expenditure of prescription letters had the negative elasticity to antibiotics prescription and relatively inelastic for corticosteroids. So, raising the price of medications to reduce the use of them could not play a successful role in a control policy.
Flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy is often the initial technique for diagnosis of lung and bronchial tumors. Many studies have shown the high accuracy rate of bronchial washing and brushing cytology in the evaluation of neoplastic and non-neoplastic bronchopulmonary lesions. The aim of this study is to emphasize the value of the bronchial cytologic findings for diagnosis of non-neoplastic bronchopulmonary lesions. In a cross-sectional study, we retrieved all cases with bronchial washing and brushing cytology from 21 Mach 2014 to 21 December 2015. The slides of 100 patients with negative cytological reports were reviewed and concomitantly correlated with history, physical examination, clinical and pathologic documents. The cases with insufficient clinical and pathological diagnostic documents were rejected. The results classified in subgroups according to final diagnosis and cytological findings were discussed. We evaluated 100 cases that were previously had negative cytological reports.60 cases were male, and 40 cases were female with male to female ratio: 6/4. The age range was between 21 to 88 with the mean age of 57 years. Regarding lung cancer, 31% of cases were false negative. Causes of these falsely negative reports were been errors in screening, low cellularity, unsatisfactory smears and poor fixation. 23% were known cases of tuberculosis with some cytological findings including inflammation, necrotic calcified deposits, multinucleated giant cell and reserve cell hyperplasia. 19% were pneumonic patients with smears demonstrating inflammation, curschmann’s spiral and reserve cell hyperplasia. Other non-neoplastic cases included in this study were asthma, granulomatous inflammation, rheumatoid arthritis, sarcoidosis, Wegener, SLE, heart failure, hydatid cyst, interstitial lung disease, and end stage renal disease. Cytological specimens from patients underwent bronchoscopic washing and brushing should be carefully examined. In situations with negative cytologic results, correlation with history, imaging and biopsy specimen is mandatory.
Electronic Health Record (EHR) is one of the most important achievements of information technology in healthcare domain, and if deployed effectively, it can yield predominant results. The aim of this study was a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis in electronic health record implementation. This is a descriptive, analytical study conducted with the participation of a 90-member work force from Hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS). The data were collected by using a self-structured questionnaire and analyzed by SPSS software. Based on the results, the highest priority in strength analysis was related to timely and quick access to information. However, lack of hardware and infrastructures was the most important weakness. Having the potential to share information between different sectors and access to a variety of health statistics was the significant opportunity of EHR. Finally, the most substantial threats were the lack of strategic planning in the field of electronic health records together with physicians’ and other clinical staff’s resistance in the use of electronic health records. To facilitate successful adoption of electronic health record, some organizational, technical and resource elements contribute; moreover, the consideration of these factors is essential for HER implementation.
Kleefstra Syndrome is characterized by severe mental retardation, brachycephaly, microcephaly, epileptic seizures, distinct facial features, and infantile weak muscle tone and heart defects. Deletion of EHMT1 is the main player in 75% of cases. Because of blurriness in genotype-phenotype correlation through clinical and molecular features of both 9q34.3 microdeletion patients and those with an intragenic EHMT1 mutation in Kleefstra Syndrome, genetic characterization of patients with clinical symptoms of such spectrum is desirable. We report the first Kleefstra Syndrome patient in Iran characterized through genetic approaches. Our report could improve KS diagnosis in Iran and prepare PND and PGs options for involved families.
Pericentric inversion of Chromosome 9 is one of the most common chromosomal abnormalities, which could be associated with various manifestations in some cases. Herein, a patient is presented with ambiguous genitalia that karyotyping revealed pericentric inversion of Chromosome 9 (p12,q13). Pericentric inversion of Chromosome 9 could be considered in the list of differential diagnosis of those with ambiguous genitalia, while chromosomal karyotype and culture could be recommended in children with ambiguous genitalia.
Denosumab is a fully human recombinant monoclonal antibody to the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand. Denosumab is used in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis and cancer-related bone disorders. There are only very scarce data on denosumab treatment in children. 14-year-old boy with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) and severe disuse osteoporosis (spinal bone mineral density L1-L4 BMD-6.2SD Z-score) and two prevalent fragility fractures was treated with denosumab. He received 60 mg subcutaneous injection at the baseline and seven months later. Six months after the initial injection there was a 19% increase in L1-L4 BMD. The injections were well tolerated without any adverse reactions. Calcemia remained stable (2.3-2.4 mmol/L). He was scheduled for the third denosumab injection six months later. Prior to this date, he acquired pneumonia and died due to respiratory failure, which is a frequent cause of death in patients with SMA. There was no relation to the denosumab treatment. In conclusion, one dose of denosumab significantly increased BMD in a child with severe osteoporosis.
We report a case of 11-year-old girl with growth retardation and 46, XX, Xq27-qter deletion. The endocrinologic evaluation revealed growth hormone deficiency. In karyotype analysis 46, XX, Xq27-qter deletion was determined. The deletion of terminal region of chromosome 27 is most commonly being detected during the evaluation of infertility, premature ovarian insufficiency or in screening for fragile X carrier status. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case with 46, XX, Xq27-qter deletion and growth hormone deficiency. Furthermore, this case might facilitate future search for candidate genes involved in growth hormone deficiency.
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