Acta Medica Iranica 2018. 56(3):196-203.

The French Maritime Pine Bark Extract Reduce Metabolic Syndrome Risk and Improve Body Composition in Obesity: A New Clinical Approach
Mohsen Sedighiyan, Mina Abdolahi, Ehsaneh Taheri, Mostafa Qorbani, Parisa Omidian, Saeed Hosseini

Abstract


Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of conditions which enhance the risk of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases such as diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, or hypertension. Obesity plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. French maritime Pine bark extract (PBE) in addition to its antioxidant properties, has protective effects on metabolic syndrome component through several mechanisms. At present, there are few data on the net impact of PBE on metabolic syndrome factors in obesity. This trial report the results of 2-month period supplementation of 38 obese women received weight loss diet and PBE (150mg/day) or placebo. The metabolic syndrome parameters and body composition were assessed at the beginning and end of the study. The results showed PBE has significant protective effects on metabolic syndrome factors including central obesity, TG, HDL, BP and FBS (P<0.05), decrease metabolic syndrome risk in obesity and improve body composition. Thus, The PBE is considered as a new approach to obesity and metabolic syndrome prevention.


Keywords


Pine bark extract, Weight loss, Obesity, Metabolic syndrome, Body composition

Full Text:

PDF

References


Lo WK. Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity in Peritoneal Dialysis. Kidney Res Clin Pract 2016;35:10-4.

IDF consensus worldwide definition of the metabolic syndrome. (Accessed January 2018, 12, at https://www.idf.org/component/attachments/attachments.html?id=706&task=download).

Eckel RH, Grundy SM, Zimmet PZ. The metabolic syndrome. Lancet 2005;365:1415-28.

Sutherland JP, McKinley B, Eckel RH. The metabolic syndrome and inflammation. Metab Syndr Relat Disord 2004;2:82-104.

Tuomilehto J, Lindström J, Eriksson JG, Valle TT, Hämäläinen H, Ilanne-Parikka P, et al. Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus by changes in lifestyle among subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. N Engl J Med 2001;344:1343-50.

Knowler WC, Barrett-Connor E, Fowler SE, Hamman RF, Lachin JM, Walker EA, et al. Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. N Engl J Med 2002;346:393.

Rohdewald P. Pycnogenol, French maritime pine bark extract. (Accessed January 2018, 12, at http://www.phytoactiva.it/wp-content/uploads/Ref.-160-Rohdewald-Encyclopedia-Pycnogenol-2.pdf).

Elstner E, Kleber E. radical scavenger properties of leucocyanidine. proceedings of the 3rd international symposium on flavonoids in biology and medicine. 1989 nov 13-17; Singapore, China, 1989.

D'Andrea G. Pycnogenol: a blend of procyanidins with multifaceted therapeutic applications? Fitoterapia 2010;81:724-36.

Sivonová M, Zitnanová I, Horáková L, Strosová M, Muchová J, Balgavý P, et al. The combined effect of pycnogenol with ascorbic acid and trolox on the oxidation of lipids and proteins. Gen Physiol Biophys 2006;25:379-96.

Rohdewald P. A review of the French maritime pine bark extract (Pycnogenol), a herbal medication with a diverse clinical pharmacology. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 2002;40:158-68.

Packer L, Rimbach G, Virgili F. Antioxidant activity and biologic properties of a procyanidin-rich extract from pine (Pinus maritima) bark, pycnogenol. Free Radic Biol Med 1999;27:704-24.

Mochizuki M, Hasegawa N. Therapeutic efficacy of pycnogenol in experimental inflammatory bowel diseases. Phytother Res 2004;18:1027-8.

Lau BH, Riesen SK, Truong KP, Lau EW, Rohdewald P, Barreta RA. Pycnogenol as an adjunct in the management of childhood asthma. J Asthma 2004;41:825-32.

Hosseini S, Pishnamazi S, Sadrzadeh SM, Farid F, Farid R, Watson RR. Pycnogenol((R)) in the Management of Asthma. J Med Food 2001;4:201-9.

Belcaro G, Cornelli U, Luzzi R, Cesarone MR, Dugall M, Feragalli B, et al. Pycnogenol® supplementation improves health risk factors in subjects with metabolic syndrome. Phytother Res 2013;27:1572-8.

Stuard S, Belcaro G, Cesarone MR, Ricci A, Dugall M, Cornelli U, et al. Kidney function in metabolic syndrome may be improved with Pycnogenol®. Panminerva Med 2010;52:27-32.

Das SK, Roberts SB, McCrory MA, Hsu LK, Shikora SA, Kehayias JJ, et al. Long-term changes in energy expenditure and body composition after massive weight loss induced by gastric bypass surgery. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;78:22-30.

Craig CL, Marshall AL, Sjöström M, Bauman AE, Booth ML, Ainsworth BE, et al. International physical activity questionnaire: 12-country reliability and validity. Med sci Sports Exerc 2003;35:1381-95.

Ireton-Jones CS, Energy, in Krause's food & the nutrition care process, Mahan LK, Escott-Stump S, Raymond JL, Editors. 2012, Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 19-31.

Abdolahi M1 Tafakhori A, Togha M, Okhovat AA, Siassi F, Eshraghian MR, et al. The synergistic effects of ω-3 fatty acids and nano-curcumin supplementation on tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α gene expression and serum level in migraine patients. Immunogenetics 2017;69:371-8.

Organization WH. Landscape analysis on countries’ readiness to accelerate action in nutrition: country assessment tools. 2012. (Accessed January 2018, 12, http://www.who.int/nutrition/publications/landscape_analysis_9789241503587.pdf).

Organization WH. Waist circumference and waist-hip ratio: Report of a WHO expert consultation, Geneva, 8-11 December 2008. (Accessed January 2018, 12, at http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/44583/1/9789241501491_eng.pdf).

Cornier MA, Dabelea D, Hernandez TL, Lindstrom RC, Steig AJ, Stob NR, et al. The metabolic syndrome. Endocrine Rev 2008;29:777-822.

Gregor MF, Hotamisligil GS. Inflammatory mechanisms in obesity. Ann Rev Immunol 2011;29:415-45.

Grattagliano I, Palmieri VO, Portincasa P, Moschetta A, Palasciano G. Oxidative stress-induced risk factors associated with the metabolic syndrome: a unifying hypothesis. J Nutr Biochem 2008;19:491-504.

Doan KV, Ko CM, Kinyua AW, Yang DJ, Choi YH, Oh IY, et al. Gallic acid regulates body weight and glucose homeostasis through AMPK activation. Endocrinology 2014;156:157-68.

Ho JN, Kim OK, Nam DE, Jun W, Lee J. Pycnogenol Supplementation Promotes Lipolysis via Activation of cAMP-Dependent PKA in ob/ob Mice and Primary-Cultured Adipocytes. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 2014;60:429-35.

Shimada T, Tokuhara D, Tsubata M, Kamiya T, Kamiya-Sameshima M, Nagamine R, et al. Flavangenol (pine bark extract) and its major component procyanidin B1 enhance fatty acid oxidation in fat-loaded models. Eur J Pharmacol 2012;677:147-53.

Shimada T, Kosugi M, Tokuhara D, Tsubata M, Kamiya T, Sameshima M, et al. Preventive effect of pine bark extract (Flavangenol) on metabolic disease in western diet-loaded tsumura suzuki obese diabetes mice. Evid

Based Complement Alternat Med 2011;2011:1-9.

Zibadi S, Rohdewald PJ, Park D, Watson RR. Reduction of cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with type 2 diabetes by Pycnogenol supplementation. Nutr Res 2008;28:315-20.

Parveen K, Khan MR, Mujeeb M, Siddiqui WA. Protective effects of Pycnogenol® on hyperglycemia-induced oxidative damage in the liver of type 2 diabetic rats. Chem Biol Interact 2010;186:219-27.

Schäfer A, Högger P. Oligomeric procyanidins of French maritime pine bark extract (Pycnogenol®) effectively inhibit α-glucosidase. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2007;77:41-6.

Park YK, Lee J, Hong VS, Choi JS, Lee TY, Jang BC. Identification of KMU-3, a novel derivative of gallic acid, as an inhibitor of adipogenesis. PloS One 2014;9:e109344.

Cesarone MR, Belcaro G, Stuard S, Schönlau F, Di Renzo A, Grossi MG, et al. Kidney flow and function in hypertension: protective effects of Pycnogenol in hypertensive participants—a controlled study. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther 2010;15:41-6.

Steigerwalt R, Belcaro G, Cesarone MR, Di Renzo A, Grossi MG, Ricci A, et al. Pycnogenol® improves microcirculation, retinal edema, and visual acuity in early diabetic retinopathy. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther 2009;25:537-40.

Enseleit F, Sudano I, Périat D, Winnik S, Wolfrum M, Flammer AJ, et al. Effects of Pycnogenol on endothelial function in patients with stable coronary artery disease: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. Eur Heart J 2012;33:1589-97.

Belcaro G, Dugall M, Luzzi R, Hosoi M, Corsi M. Improvements of venous tone with pycnogenol in chronic venous insufficiency: an ex vivo study on venous segments. Int J Angiol 2014;23:47-52.

Devaraj S, Vega-López S, Kaul N, Schönlau F, Rohdewald P, Jialal I. Supplementation with a pine bark extract rich in polyphenols increases plasma antioxidant capacity and alters the plasma lipoprotein profile. Lipids 2002;37:931-4.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.