Anti-mutagenic and Pro-apoptotic Effects of Apigenin on Human Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cells
Diet can play a vital role in cancer prevention. Nowadays the scientists are looking for food materials which can potentially prevent the cancer occurrence. The purpose of this research is to examine anti-mutagenic and apoptotic effects of apigenin in human lymphoma cells. In present study human chronic lymphocytic leukemia (Eheb cell line) were cultured in RPMI 1640 (Sigma), supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum, penicillin-streptomycin, L-glutamine and incubated at 37 ºC for 2 days. In addition cancer cell line was treated by and apigenin and cellular vital capacity was determined by MTT assay. Then effect of apigenin in human lymphoma B cells was examined by flow cytometry techniques. The apigenin was subsequently evaluated in terms of anti-mutagenic properties by a standard reverse mutation assay (Ames test). This was performed with histidine auxotroph strain of Salmonella typhimurium (TA100). Thus, it requires histidine from a foreign supply to ensure its growth. The aforementioned strain gives rise to reverted colonies when expose to sodium azide as a carcinogen substance. During MTT assay, human chronic lymphocytic leukemia revealed to have a meaningful cell death when compared with controls (P<0.01) Apoptosis was induced suitably after 48 hours by flow cytometry assay. In Ames test apigenin prevented the reverted mutations and the hindrance percent of apigenin was 98.17%.These results have revealed apigenin induced apoptosis in human lymphoma B cells in vitro.
Parkin DM, Pisani P, Ferlay J. Global cancer statistics. CA Cancer J Clin 1999;49(1):33-64, 1.
Parkin DM, Bray F, Ferlay J, Pisani P. Estimating the world cancer burden: Globocan 2000. Int J Cancer 2001;94(2):153-6.
Hanahan D, Weinberg RA. The hallmarks of cancer. Cell 2000;100(1):57-70.
Zimmermann KC, Green DR. How cells die: apoptosis pathways. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2001;108(4 Suppl):S99-103.
Lin A, Karin M. NF-kappaB in cancer: a marked target. Semin Cancer Biol 2003;13(2):107-14.
Won KA, Reed SI. Activation of cyclin E/CDK2 is coupled to site-specific autophosphorylation and ubiquitindependent degradation of cyclin E. EMBO J 1996;15(16):4182-93.
Glotzer M, Murray AW, Kirschner MW. Cyclin is degraded by the ubiquitin pathway. Nature 1991;349(6305):132-8.
Dou QP, Li B. Proteasome inhibitors as potential novel anticancer agents. Drug Resist Updat 1999;2(4):215-223.
Hetts SW. To die or not to die. An overview of apoptosis and its role in disease. JAMA 1998;279(4):300-7.
Osmond DG. Proliferation kinetics and the lifespan of B cells in central and peripheral lymphoid organs. Curr Opin Immunol 1991;3(2):179-85.
Moller P, Wallin H, Knudsen LE. Oxidative stress associated with exercise, psychological stress and life-style factors. Chem Biol Interact 1996;102(1):17-36.
Namiki M. Antioxidants/antimutagens in food. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 1990;29(4):273-300.
Mccord JM. Free radicals and pro-oxidants in health and nutrition. Food Technol 1994;48:106-10.
Clarkson PM, Thompson HS. Antioxidants: what role do they play in physical activity and health? Am J Clin Nutr 2000;72(2 Suppl):637S-46S.
Hirota F, Suganuma M, Imai K, Nakachi K. Green tea: cancer preventive beverage and/or drug. Cancer Letters 2002;188:9-13.
Riboli E, Norat T. Epidemiologic evidence of the protective effect of fruit and vegetables on cancer risk. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;78(3 Suppl):559S-569S.
Tadjalli-Mehr K, Becker N, Rahu M, Stengrevics A, Kurtinaitis J, Hakama M. Randomized trial with fruits and vegetables in prevention of cancer. Acta Oncol 2003;42(4):287-93.
Temple NJ, Gladwin KK. Fruit, vegetables, and the prevention of cancer: research challenges. Nutrition 2003;19(5):467-70.
Harborne JB, Williams CA. Advances in flavonoid research since 1992. Phytochemistry 2000;55(6):481-504.
Yang CS, Landau JM, Huang MT, Newmark HL.Inhibition of carcinogenesis by dietary polyphenolic compounds. Annu Rev Nutr 2001;21:381-406.
Ren W, Qiao Z, Wang H, Zhu L, Zhang L. Flavonoids: promising anticancer agents. Med Res Rev 2003;23(4):519-34.
Yao LH, Jiang YM, Shi J, Tomás-Barberán FA, Datta N, Singanusong R, et al. Flavonoids in food and their health benefits. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 2004;59(3):113-22.
Peterson JJ, Beecher GR, Bhagwat SA, Dwyer JT, Gebhardt SE, Haytowitz DB, et al. Flavanones in grapefruit, lemons, and limes : A compilation and review of the data from the analytical literature. J Food Compost Anal 2002;19:S74-S80.
Kanakis CD, Tarantilis PA, Polissiou MG, Diamantoglou S, Tajmir-Riahi HA. An overview of DNA and RNA bindings to antioxidant flavonoids. Cell Biochem Biophys,2007;49(1):29-36.
Nafisi S, Hashemi M, Rajabi M, Tajmir-Riahi HA. DNA adducts with antioxidant flavonoids: morin, apigenin, and naringin. DNA Cell Biol 2008;27(8):433-42.
Kanno S, Shouji A, Hirata R, Asou K, Ishikawa M. Effects of naringin on cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C)-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in P388 cells. Life Sci 2004;75(3):353-65.
Balasubramanian S, Eckert RL. Keratinocyte proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis: differential mechanisms of regulation by curcumin, EGCG and apigenin. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2007;224(3):214-9.
Ames BN, Mccann J, Yamasaki E. Methods for detecting carcinogens and mutagens with the Salmonella/mammalian-microsome mutagenicity test. Mutat Res 1975;31(6):347-64.
Ames BN, Durston WE, Yamasaki E, Lee FD. Carcinogens are mutagens: a simple test system combining liver homogenates for activation and bacteria for detection.Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1973;70(8):2281-5.
Rivett AJ. The multicatalytic proteinase. Multiple proteolytic activities. J Biol Chem 1989;264(21):12215-9.
Chen P, Hochstrasser M. Autocatalytic subunit processing couples active site formation in the 20S proteasome to completion of assembly. Cell 1996;86(6):961-72.
Lee DH, Goldberg AL. Proteasome inhibitors: valuable new tools for cell biologists. Trends Cell Biol 1998;8(10):397-403.
Franks LM, Teich N, editors. Introduction to the Cellular and Molecular Biology of. Cancer. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press;1997.
Bennett JP, Gomperts BD, Wollenweber E. Inhibitory effects of natural flavonoids on secretion from mast cells and neutrophils. Arzneimittelforschung 1981;31(3):433-7.
Hu XW, Meng D, Fang J. Apigenin inhibited migration and invasion of human ovarian cancer A2780 cells through focal adhesion kinase. Carcinogenesis 2008;29(12):2369-76.
Mak P, Leung YK, Tang WY, Harwood C, Ho SM. Apigenin Suppresses Cancer Cell Growth through ERβ. Neoplasia 2006;8(11):896-904.
Doustar Y, Hashemi M, editors. Apoptosis. Tehran: The Islamic Azad University Publications, Medical Sciences Branch; 2008.
Hanada M, Delia D, Aiello A, Stadtmauer E, Reed JC. bcl- 2 gene hypomethylation and high-level expression in Bcell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Blood1993;82(6):1820-8.
Pepper C, Hoy T, Bentley P. Elevated Bcl-2/Bax are a consistent feature of apoptosis resistance in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and are correlated with in vivo chemoresistance. Leuk Lymphoma 1998;28(3-4):355-61.
McConkey DJ, Chandra J, Wright S, Plunkett W, McDonnell TJ, Reed JC, et al. Apoptosis sensitivity in chronic lymphocytic leukemia is determined by endogenous endonuclease content and relative expression of BCL-2 and BAX. J Immunol 1996;156(7):2624-30.
Thomas A, El Rouby S, Reed JC, Krajewski S, Silber R, Potmesil M, et al. Drug-induced apoptosis in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia: relationship between p53 gene mutation and bcl-2/bax proteins in drug resistance. Oncogene 1996;12(5):1055-62.
Kitada S, Andersen J, Akar S, Zapata JM, Takayama S, Krajewski S, et al. Expression of apoptosis-regulating proteins in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: correlations with In vitro and In vivo chemoresponses. Blood 1998;91(9):3379-89.
McConkey DJ, Chandra J. Protease activation and glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Leuk Lymphoma 1999;33(5-6):421-31
Skorski T, Bellacosa A, Nieborowska-Skorska M,Majewski M, Martinez R, Choi JK, et al. Transformation of hematopoietic cells by BCR/ABL requires activation of a PI-3k/Akt-dependent pathway. EMBO J 1997;16(20):6151-61.
Cooper K, Haffajee Z. bcl-2 and p53 protein expression in follicular lymphoma. bcl-2 and p53 protein expression in follicular lymphoma. J Pathol 1997;182(3):307-10.
Lo Coco F, Gaidano G, Louie DC, Offit K, Chaganti RS, Dalla-Favera R. p53 mutations are associated with histologic transformation of follicular lymphoma. Blood 1993;82(8):2289-95.
Matolcsy A. High-grade transformation of low-grade non- Hodgkin's lymphomas: mechanisms of tumor progression. Leuk Lymphoma 1999;34(3-4):251-9.
Pinyol M, Cobo F, Bea S, Jares P, Nayach I, Fernandez PL, et al. p16(INK4a) gene inactivation by deletions, mutations, and hypermethylation is associated with transformed and aggressive variants of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. Blood 1998;91(8):2977-84.
|Issue||Vol 48, No 5 (2010)|
|Antimutagenicity antineoplastic agents Leukemia|
|Rights and permissions|
|This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.|