Serum ox-LDL Level is Reduced with the Extent of Stenosis in Coronary Arteries
Oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) lipoproteins are proposed as important modified particles triggering pro-inflammatory events through receptor-mediated pathways. We evaluated the circulating ox-LDL level on the concept that the chronic immune events may affect ox-LDL clearance as the vessel stenosis develops in coronary arteries. One hundred sixty five subjects underwent coronary angiography and then, subdivided into four subgroups controls (n=85); SVD, 2VD and 3VD (n=80). The serum ox-LDL level and other biochemical parameters were measured using ELISA method and routine laboratory techniques, respectively. The serum ox-LDL level in the control group (4.81±1.41 mU/mg) was significantly higher than patients (4.28±1.73 mU/mg, P<0.05). The ox-LDL/LDL ratio was conversely reduced with the extent of stenosis as compared with the controls (P<0.05). Furthermore, no difference was observed in the ox-LDL/LDL ratio between the 2VD and 3VD patients. We suggested the atherosclerosis process increases the total clearing capacities of the circulating ox-LDL particles.
Ross R, Glomset JA. The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, N Engl J Med 1976; 295(7):369-77.
Steinberg D, Parthasarathy S, Crew TE, Khoo JC and Witztum JL. Beyond cholesterol: modification of lowdensity lipoprotein that increases its atherogenecity, N Engl J Med 1989; 320(14):915-24.
Nakamura T, Takano H, Umetani K, Kawabata K, Obata JE, Kitta Y, Kodama Y, Mende A, Ichigi Y, Fujioka D, Saito Y, Kugiyama K.Remnant lipoproteinemia is a risk factor for endothelial vasomotor dysfunction and coronary artery disease in metabolic syndrome, Atherosclerosis 2005;181(2):321-27.
Goldstein JL, Ho YK, Basu SK, Brown MS. Binding site on macrophages that mediates uptake and degradation of acetylated low density lipoprotein, producing massive cholesterol deposition, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1979;79(1):333-7.
Henriksen T, Mahoney EM, Steinberg D. Enhanced macrophage degradation of low density lipoprotein previously incubated with cultured endothelial cells: recognition by receptors for acetylated low density lipoproteins, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1981;78(10):6499-503.
Schwenke DC, Carew TE. Initiation of atherosclerotic lesion in cholesterol-fed rabbits: II. Selective retention of LDL vs. selective increases in LDL permeability in susceptible sites of arteries, Arteriosclerosis1989; 9(6):908-18.
Ström A, Fredrikson GN, Schiopu A, Ljungcrantz I, Söderberg I, Jansson B, Carlsson R, Hultgårdh-Nilsson A, Nilsson J. Inhibition of injury-induced arterial remodelling and carotid atherosclerosis by recombinant human antibodies against aldehyde-modified apoB-100. Atherosclerosis 2007; 190(2):298-305.
Shimaoka T, Kume N, Minami M, Hayashida K, Kataoka H, Kita T, Yonehara S. Molecular cloning of a novelscavenger receptor for oxidized low density lipoprotein, SR-PSOX, on macrophages, J Biol Chem 2000; 275(52):40663-6.
Kunjathoor VV, Febbraio M, Podrez EA, Moore KJ, Andersson L, Koehn S, Rhee JS, Silverstein R, Hoff HF, Freeman MW. Scavenger re-eptors class A-I/II and CD36 are the principal receptors responsible for the uptake of modified low density lipoprotein leading to lipid loading in macrophages. J Biol Chem 2002; 277(51):49982-8.
Nishi K, Itabe H, Uno M, Kitazato KT, Horiguchi H, Shinno K, Nagahiro S. Oxidized LDL in carotid plaques and plasma associates with plaque instability. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2002;22(10):1649-54.
Hulthe J, Wikstrand J, Lidell A, Wendelhag I, Hansson GK, Wiklund O. Antibody titers against oxidized LDL are not elevated in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1998;18(8):1203-11.
Shoji T, Nishizawa Y, Fukumoto M, Shimamura K, Kimura J, Kanda H, Emoto M, Kawagishi T, Morii H. Inverse relationship between circulating oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and antioxLDL antibody level in healthy subjects. Atherosclerosis 2000;148(1):171-7.
Kato R, Mori C, Kitazato K, Arata S, Obama T, Mori M, Takahashi K, Aiuchi T, Takano T, Itabe H. Transient increase in plasma oxidized LDL during the progression of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E knockout mice. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2009;29(1):33-9.
Ishigaki Y, Katagiri H, Gao J, Yamada T, Imai J, Uno K, Hasegawa Y, Kaneko K, Ogihara T, Ishihara H, Sato Y, Takikawa K, Nishimichi N, Matsuda H, Sawamura T, Oka Y. Impact of plasma oxidized low-density lipoprotein removal on atherosclerosis. Circulation 2008;118(1):75-83.
Meisinger C, Baumert J, Khuseyinova N, Loewel H,Koenig W. Plasma oxidized low-density lipoprotein, a strong predictor for acute coronary heart disease events in apparently healthy, middle-aged men from the general population. Circulation 2005;112(5):651-7.
Shimada K, Mokuno H, Matsunaga E, Miyazaki T, Sumiyoshi K, Miyauchi K, Daida H. Circulating oxidized low-density lipoprotein is an independent predictor forcardiac event in patients with coronary artery disease.Atherosclerosis 2004; 174(2):343-7.
Hasegawa A, Toshima S, Nakano A, Nagai R. Oxidized LDL in patients with coronary heart disease and normal subjects. Nippon Rinsho 1999;57(12):2754-8.
Wang JJ, Han AZ, Meng Y, Gong JB, Zhang CN, Li K, Liu YX. Measurement of oxidized lipoprotein (a) in patients with acute coronary syndromes and stable coronary artery disease by 2 ELISAs: using different capture antibody against oxidized lipoprotein (a) or oxidized LDL. Clin Biochem 2010;43(6):571-5.
Hörkkö S, Bird DA, Miller E, Itabe H, Leitinger N, Subbanagounder G, Berliner JA, Friedman P, Dennis EA, Curtiss LK, Palinski W, Witztum JL. Monoclonalautoantibodies specific for oxidized phospholipids or oxidized phospholipid-protein adducts inhibit macrophage uptake of oxidized low-density lipoproteins. J Clin Invest 1999;103(1):117-28.
Monoclonal autoantibodies specific for oxidized phospholipids or oxidized phospholipid-protein adducts inhibit macrophage uptake of oxidized low-density lipoproteins. J Clin Invest 103:117-128.
Holvoet P, Harris TB, Tracy RP, Verhamme P, Newman AB, Rubin SM, Simonsick EM, Colbert LH, Kritchevsky SB.. Association of high coronary heart disease risk status with circulating oxidized LDL in the well-functioning elderly: Findings from the health, aging, and body composition study. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol2003;23(8):1444-8.
Glass CK, Witztum JL. Atherosclerosis: the road ahead. Cell 2011;104(4):503-16.
Ehara S, Ueda M, Naruko T, Haze K, Itoh A, Otsuka M, Komatsu R, Matsuo T, Itabe H, Takano T, Tsukamoto Y, Yoshiyama M, Takeuchi K, Yoshikawa J, Becker AE. Elevated Levels of Oxidized Low Density Lipoprotein Show a Positive Relationship With the Severity of Acute Coronary Syndromes.Circulation 2001; 103(15); 1955-60.
Li JJ (2011) Inflammation in coronary artery diseases. Chin Med J (Engl) 2011;124(21):3568-75.
Ling W, Lougheed M, Suzuki H, Buchan A, Kodama T, Steinbrecher UP (1997) Oxidized or acetylated low density lipoproteins are rapidly cleared by the liver in mice with disruption of the scavenger receptor class A type I/II gene. J Clin Invest 1997;100(2):244-52.
Napoleão P, Selas M, Toste A, Turkman A, Andreozzi V,Viegas-Crespo AM, Pinheiro T, Ferreira RC. Serial changes in oxidized low-density lipoprotein associated with culprit vessel in ST-elevation myocardial infarction--a promising marker? Rev Port Cardiol 2009;28(3):303-8.
Ishigaki Y, Katagiri H, Gao J, Yamada T, Imai J, Uno K, Hasegawa Y, Kaneko K, Ogihara T, Ishihara H, Sato Y, Takikawa K, Nishimichi N, Matsuda H, Sawamura T, Oka Y. Impact of plasma oxidized low-density lipoprotein removal on atherosclerosis. Circulation 2008; 118(1):75-83.
Miller ER 3rd, Pastor-Barriuso R, Dalal D, Riemersma RA, Appel LJ, Guallar E. Meta-analysis: high-dosage vitamin E supplementation may increase all-cause mortality. Ann Intern Med 2005;142(1):37–46.
Wu T, Willett WC, Rifai N, Shai I, Manson JE, Rimm EB. Is plasma oxidized low-density lipoprotein, measured with the widely used antibody 4E6, an independent predictor of coronary heart disease among U.S. men and women? J Am Coll Cardiol 2006; 48(5):973-9.
Holvoet P. Oxidative modification of low-density lipoproteins in atherothrombosis. Acta Cardiol 1998;53(5):253-60.
Sherer Y, Cerinic MM, Bartoli F, Blagojevic J, Conforti ML, Gilburd B, Ehrenfeld M, Shoenfeld Y. Early atherosclerosis and autoantibodies to heat-shock proteins and oxidized LDL in systemic sclerosis. Ann N Y AcadSci 2007; 1108:259-67.
Tremblay AJ, Lamarche B, Cohn JS, Hogue JC, Couture P. Differential effect of atorvastatin and fenofibrate on plasma oxidized low-density lipoprotein, inflammation markers, and cell adhesion molecules in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metabolism 2008;57(3):380-6.