Association of Food Allergies, Cow’s Milk Allergy, and Asthma With Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease
There are controversies on the association of childhood allergic diseases with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The aim of this study was to examine the association between food allergy, cow’s milk allergy (CMA), and asthma with pediatric IBD in Iranian population. This case-control study was conducted on 200 individuals less than 18-year-old (100 with IBD and 100 as control group). Medical records, clinical presentation, and laboratory and para-clinical findings related to food allergy, CMA, and asthma were reviewed for all participants in both groups and were recorded. Among 100 children with IBD, 40 had Crohn's disease, and 60 had ulcerative colitis. The frequency of food allergy, cow's milk allergy, and asthma in children with IBD was significantly higher than the control group (P<0.001). Asthma in children with Crohn's disease was significantly more prevalent than children with ulcerative colitis (P=0.008). Food allergy (OR: 22.1, 95% CI: 5.1-95.05, P<0.001), CMA (OR: 15, 95% CI: 3-67, P<0.001), and asthma (OR: 10, 95% CI: 3-37.05, P<0.001) were significantly associated with increased risk of IBD in children. Food allergy, CMA in infancy and asthma are more prevalent in children with different subtypes of IBD. The diagnosis of these risk factors is associated with increased risk of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.
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