A. R. Dehpour, PharmD, PhD
A. Javadian, MD
Vol 50, No 3 (2012)
There are disparate data regarding whether bilirubin is protective or toxic during free radical related illness among neonates. Seventy one infants with gestational age (GA) of <32 weeks and/or birth weight (BW) of <1500 g, who survived beyond 4 weeks and completed physical examinations were enrolled in this study. The infants were divided into two groups based on the presence or absence of advanced retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), grade III intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), grade III necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), sepsis or severe fungal infection (SFI). The mean of total serum bilirubin (TSB) of the first 14 days of life were measured and compared between these two groups. A significant lower TSB were found in severe form of ROP (P<0.001), grade III NEC (P=0.008), grade III IVH (P=0.021), SFI (P=0.003) and sepsis (P=0.007) in comparison to mild or disease free status. Moreover, the cut-off point of 5.1 mg/dl for the mean of TSB had the sensitivity of 88.1% and specificity of 84.6% to detect severe grades of ROP. Also the cut-off point of 3.25 mg/dl had 97.2% sensitivity and 100% specificity in order to distinguish SFI. It is concluded that bilirubin may play an antioxidant role in vivo as in vitro; and protect preterm infant against these free radical related disorders. Our findings suggest that not only the upper limits of serum bilirubin, but also the lower limits must be taking into account in order to both preventing from neurotoxic effects and free radical based illnesses, respectively.
Fascioliasis is an endemic disease in Iran and triclabendazole (TCBZ) is using for treatment of domestic animals and infected people. Excretory-secretory products (ESP) play an important role in the host biochemical defense by means of activities of detoxifying and antioxidant glutathione S-transferase (GST) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes respectively. Therefore, the aim of this comparative study was to evaluate fasciola protection against TCBZ drug by detection of enzymatic activities, GST and SOD, in TCBZ treated Fasciola hepatica / Fasciola gigantica and control ESP samples. F. gigantic and F. hepatica helminthes were collected and cultured within buffer media (TCBZ treated and untreated or control) for 4 h at 37 °C. Three TCBZ treated and 1 control ESP samples for each species were collected, centrifuged and supernatants were stored at -20°C. ESP samples protein concentrations were measured by Bradford method. SOD and GST enzymes activities of ESP samples were estimated photometrically. To determine the statistically significant difference between ESP of treated and control samples, t-test was conducted. ESP protein bands were detected by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Protein concentrations in treated F. hepatica and F. gigantica ESP samples were estimated 204.88, 428, 130.4 and 288.2, 488.2, 308.2 µg/ml respectively. Protein concentrations in control samples were estimated 488.18 and 124.8 ug/ml respectively. SOD enzyme specific activities level in treated F.hepatica and F. gigantica ESP samples were determined 0.14, 0.31, 3.96 and 11.11, 13.54, 19.95 U/mg/protein respectively. SOD activities level in control samples were detected 70.69 and 10.92 U/mg/protein. GST specific activities level in treated F.hepatica and F. gigantica ESP samples were calculated 25.3, 85.5, 37.3 and 1823, 1314.3, 1320.8 U/mg respectively. GST activities levels in control samples were detected 98.6 and 1083.9 U/mg/protein respectively. Statistical analysis reveal the significant different between proteins concentrations, GST and SOD enzyme specific activities of TCBZ treated ESP samples of F. gigantic in comparison to the control samples (P0.05). There is no difference between SDS-PAGE results of treated and control samples. Based on the results of the present work, significant increase of enzymatic activities of GST and SOD in TCBZ treated F. gigantica ESP, it seems, the protection of this species against drug is higher than F. hepatica.
Mental health problems including emotional and behavioral problems during puberty may be under influence of different risk factors including cultures, living in urban or rural areas and ethnic factors which may vary between different countries. The main aim of this study is to investigate the profile of emotional and behavioral problems and the role of factors such as age, stage of puberty, ethnicity, rurality and living in urban area, as risk factors in Iranian girls. As a part of a large national study we evaluated the emotional and behavioral problems in different stages of puberty in a community sample of Iranian adolescent girls from public schools that were selected by clustered random sampling method. In all subjects, demographic characteristics, and pubertal stages were measured. Emotional and behavioral problems were evaluated using Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The associations of age, pubertal development indices, socioeconomic and demographic factors with the behavioral problems were assessed. A total number of 4576 students enrolled the study and responded to the questions. The mean age of participants was 13.83±2.19 years. The mean total score of difficulties in participants was 14.34±5.81. According to these results 813 (17.8%) adolescents had total problem scores higher than Goodman's cutoff points and the most frequent problem domain was conduct problems (20.5%). According to the results the most related variable with the total difficulty score of SDQ were ethnicity, residency in urban areas and development of menstrual cycle respectively. The results of this study showed that the most correlated factors with mental health problems in Iranian girls during puberty are ethnicity, urbanity and development of menstrual cycle.
Obesity and its related emotional and physical consequences are a worldwide problem. Obese individuals are usually stigmatized. This study is proposed to assess the correlation between body mass index, gender and age with psychiatric symptoms among Iranian students. A number of 9172 students aged 10-18 years (53.5% girls and 46.5% boys) from all provinces of Iran participated in this study. Data was collected using the global school based health survey questionnaire of the World Health Organization (GSHS-WHO). Overall, prevalence of predictors of having emotional problems, depression and anxiety were 27.8%, 29.7% and 11.5% respectively. Girls had significantly higher prevalence of predictors of psychiatric symptoms. Overall obesity was a protective factor against emotional problems OR (CI95%):0.79(0.65-0.98), but it was attributable to obese boys OR (CI95%):0.72(0.55-0.95). Depression and anxiety symptoms were higher in intermediate school girls and high school girls and boys. More attention should be paid to girls' psychological problems. Besides, obesity had an indirect relation with predictors of having psychiatric problems in Iranian boys and it might be due to: (1) parents' beliefs about heaviness as a predictor of healthiness, (2) boys' lower vulnerability to psychological consequences of obesity and (3) lower pressure from parents on their obese sons to lose weight.
Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, though with different sources, is one of the most deadly emergencies in all countries. CO can threaten men's life by several paths especially cardiac complications, which can mimic other cardiac problems such as myocardial infarction. The objective of this study was to determine ECG findings and serum troponin I levels in CO poisoned patients. In this analytical cross-sectional study, 63 CO poisoning patients were consecutively included from hospital's emergency departments. CO content was measured by a CO-oximeter and an electrocardiography was taken first thing on admission. Arterial blood gas (ABG), troponin I and other data was collected afterwards. Data were divided by age groups (adults and children) and gender. CO content was significantly higher only in subjects with normal T wave compared to patients with inverted T wave in their initial ECG (P=0.016). No other significant difference was noticed. None of the ABG findings correlated significantly with CO content. Also no significant correlation was found with CO content after stratification by gender and age groups, but pH in children (r=-0.484, P=0.026). CO content was significantly higher in adults (P=0.023), but other ABG data were not significantly different. Only 3 patients had elevated troponin I. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis showed no significant cutoff points in CO content for ECG changes. No significant specific change in electrocardiograms (ECG) could contribute carboxyhemoglobin content in carbon monoxide poisoned patients. In addition, no specific difference was found between adults and pediatric subjects' ECGs. All other findings seemed to be accidental.
Meningitis is one of the hazardous and life threatening infections and is associated with mortality and morbidity. The aim of this study was to determine etiological agents of childhood bacterial meningitis. The culture, Gram staining, agglutination and PCR assays were used to examine CSF specimens from 277 patients with presumed bacterial meningitis for the occurrence of 4 most common infectious agents consist of N. meningitis, H. influnsae, S. pneumoniae and S. agalactiae between 2008 and 2009 at different wards of the Children Hospital of Tabriz. The mean age of patients was 35±2 (Mean±SEM) month, (minimum 11 days maximum14 years), of all cases 59.6% male and 40.4% female. Overall the diagnosis was confirmed with a CSF culture in 11/277 (3.97%), by agglutination test in 14/277 (5.05%). The isolated bacteria included S. pneumoniae 5 cases, H. influnsae 2 cases, N. meningitis 3 cases and P. aeroginusae 1 case. A positive PCR assay allowed us to diagnose bacterial meningitis in 19 patients (6.8%). In the present study, we found PCR to be a useful and sensitive method for the detection of bacterial DNA in the CSF samples from suspected meningitis patients. Furthermore, to maximize management of meningitis cases, a combination of culture and PCR is necessary.
Protein- energy malnutrition, wasting and inflammation are frequent complication among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Malnutrition is associated with cardiac co-morbidity, inflammation and poor survival in ESRD patients. Serum albumin is a well-known marker of nutrition in ESRD patients. Serum albumin is still the most commonly used nutritional marker in ESRD patients. C-reactive protein (CRP), the major acute phase response (APR) protein is elevated in these patients. High CRP levels are linked to the degree of atherosclerosis in coronary, peripheral, and extracranial brain arteries. The aim of the present study was to investigate nutritional factor (albumin) and CRP levels in ESRD patients. In this cross- sectional study a total of 300 patients who had ESRD and had been on hemodialysis treatment for at least 6 months were selected. The laboratory tests consisted of measurement of CRP and albumin using high sensitive ELISA kits. The study patients included 157 males (52.3%) and 143 females (47.7%) with average age of 41.5±14.3 years. Mean CRP level was 7.96 mg/ dl (±1.52), mean serum albumin was 4.07 g/dl (±0.19).Of 300 patients, 21 died (7%). These were patients with serum albumin <4 g/dl and CRP>9.5 mg/dl. This study showed that low albumin and high CRP levels are the main predictors for death. There was a significant difference between CRP and albumin levels in ESRD patients (P<0.0001). Measuring CRP as a marker of inflammation can be helpful in managing these patients.
To review our experience in treatment of patients with thoracic empyema at a teaching hospital chart of patients were retrospectively reviewed over a 72-month period. A total of 112 patients (94 men, 18 women, mean age: 39, range: 6-89 years) underwent therapeutic procedures for thoracic empyema between 2001-2006. The causes of empyema included parapneumonic empyema (60.7%), thoracic trauma (20.5%), surgical procedures (7.1%) and seeding from an extra-pulmonary source (11.7%). Multiloculated empyemas were documented in 45 patients (40%). Insertion of chest tube was the first procedure in 103 patients (92%). Nineteen patients (17%) were treated by thoracotomy, ten patients (8.9%) had fibrinolytic therapy, eight patients (7.2%) underwent video assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) and sixteen patients (14.3%) had subsequent radiologic-guided drainage. Thoracotomy-Decortication was successful in 90% of patients undergoing surgery and the least successful intervention was tube thoracostomy alone. Twelve of 112 patients (10.7%) died in the hospital including one patient in the thoracotomy group. Long-term follow-up was available in 67 patients including all of patients requiring surgery and fibrinolytic therapy. Thirty four patients (50%) obtained complete functional recovery. Simple drainage as the first procedure for the treatment of thoracic empyema has a high failure rate. Selection of a therapeutic option should be based on age, underlying disease, stage of the empyema, state of the loculation, local expertise and availability. Surgical procedures such as VATS or thoracotomy are recommended as the first procedure in elderly patients and advanced empyema.
Glaucoma is a major cause of blindness worldwide. A single nucleotide polymorphism of the MTHFR gene (C677T) has been associated with susceptibility to this disease, although this is controversial in the last decade. In this study, the possible association between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and the risk of developing primary open angle (POAG) and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (PEXG) was investigated. For this, a prospective study consisting of 73 POAG, 85 PEXG and 90 matched controls was undertaken in an Iranian population. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood. Genotyping of all individuals for the MTHFR C677T polymorphism was conducted using the PCR-RFLP technique. Our findings revealed no significant association between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism in POAG and PEXG compared with controls. Consistent with several other studies, our analysis suggests that the MTHFR C677T polymorphism is unlikely to be a factor contributing to the risk of developing specific forms of glaucoma.
Drug induced dystonic reactions are among common presentations of patients in emergency departments, and typically occur with antidopaminergic agents as their extra-pyramidal side effects. Dystonic reactions usually occur within the first few hours or days after commencing a drug or dose increase. Unlike other extra-pyramidal side effects, a patient may experience acute dystonic reactions (ADRs) with the administration of just a single dose. Oromandibular dystonia is a subtype of dystonia which can present with perioral manifestations. In extreme cases, it can lead to temporomandibular dislocation. Haloperidol, as a high potent typical antipsychotic drug, can induce dystonia with blocking D2 dopamine receptors. The present paper reports a case of bilateral dislocation of temporomandibular joint following ingestion of haloperidol in a suicidal attempt in a 17 years old girl.
Primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS) is an idiopathic disorder (vasculitis) restricted to the central nervous system (CNS). It often presents with focal neurological deficits suggesting stroke or a combination of confusion and headache. We herein report three cases with various combinations of fever, partial seizure, encephalopathy, paresis, headache and ataxia. One of them was initially treated as herpes simplex meningoencephalitis, but further investigations revealed primary angiitis. Primary angiitis of the CNS has protean manifestations and should always be considered in patients suspicious to have CNS infection or stroke, particularly who does not respond to the routine treatments. Clinical data, exclusion of differential diagnoses and typical angiography seem to be enough to justify the diagnosis in the majority of cases.
Chondroma is a benign tumor which mostly occurs in extremities but also sometimes in brain. Most intracranial chondromas arise from skull base, but chondroma of falx origin is a rare circumstance. Indeed, the intracranial chondromas rise from falx is mostly in relation with syndromic disorders such as Mafucci's syndrome or Ollier's syndrome. Here, we reported a rare case of falxian intracranial chondroma in a young man who has normal physical examination and no signs of any syndromic disorder. The goal of this paper was to raise awareness about chondromas and suggest that chondroma be ruled out in any patient with masses arising from falx.
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