Ahmadreza Dehpour, PharmD, PhD
Vol 51, No 7 (2013)
Prior animal models have shown that rats sustaining 3-second immediate spinal cord compression had significantly better functional recovery and smaller lesion volumes than rats subjected to compression times of 1 hour, 6 hours, 3 weeks, and 10 weeks after spinal cord injury. We compare locomotor rating scales and spinal cord histopathology after 3 seconds and 10 minute compression times. . Ten rats were assigned into two early (3-second) and late (10-minute) compressive surgery groups. Compressive injury was produced using an aneurysmal clip method. Rats were followed-up for 11 weeks, and behavioral assessment was done by inclined plane test and tail-flick reflex. At the end of the study, the rats were sacrificed, and spinal cord specimens were studied in light and EM. Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor rating scales were significantly better in the early compression group after the 4th week of evaluation (P<0.05) and persisted throughout the remainder of the study. Histopathology demonstrated decreased normal tissue, more severe gliosis and cystic formation in the late group compared to the early group (P<0.05). In EM study, injuries in the late group including injury to the myelin and axon were more severe than the early compression group, and there was more cytoplasmic edema in the late compression group. Spinal cord injury secondary to 3-second compression improves functional motor recovery, spares more functional tissue, and is associated with less intracellular edema, less myelin and axon damage and more myelin regeneration in rats compared to those with 10 minutes of compression. Inclined plane test and tail-flick reflex had no significant difference.
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of spinal block with low dose of bupivacaine and sufentanil on patients with low cardiac output who underwent lower limb surgery. Fifteen patients who had ejection fraction less than 40% (group 1) were compared with 65 cases with ejection fraction more than 40% (group 2) in our study. Our subjects underwent spinal block with 7.5 mg hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5% and 5 µg sufentanil. We recorded early events such as hypotension, bradycardia, vasopressor need and ST segment change in our cases. The average mean arterial pressure decreased 13% (110 mmHg to 95.7 mmHg) in group 1 and 20% (160 mmHg to 128 mmHg) in group 2 (P<0.001). Hypotension due to spinal anesthesia was observed in none of our subjects in both groups and none of our cases need to vasopressor support. All patients remained alert, and no ST segment changes were observed in two groups. In our study none of subjects complained of pain intraoperatively. The subjects were without complaints during the spinal anesthetic in both groups. Spinal block with low dose local anesthetic and sufentanil was a safe and effective method for lower limb surgery in patients with low ejection fraction.
The aim of this study is to compare three modes of femoral fixation, namely Aperfix, Rigidfix and Endobutton, in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. 120 patients were randomly assigned to three groups, each consisting of 40 patients, and each group was treated by one of the above mentioned methods of femoral fixation. All patients were examined prior to and 24 months after surgery, and they were compared for anterior tibial displacement using the Lysholm score and KT-1000. The three modes of femoral fixation were not significantly different in terms of time of surgery. In the Endobutton group, the Lysholm score rose from 63.21±18.59 prior to ACL reconstruction to 90.64±9.47 after the surgery, while it rose from 65.72±18.74 to 96.22±5.35 in the Aperfix group and from 69.21±17.45 to 90.64±9.47 in the Rigidfix group. Anterior tibial displacement was 3.96±1.58 mm for Endobutton, 4.28±1.48 mm for Rigidfix and 4.03±1.79 mm for Aperfix. Aperfix was indicated to yield a better outcome in terms of instant stability and general results.
Tuberculosis pericarditis as a potentially fatal complication of tuberculosis requires effective diagnosis and treatment. We evaluated the efficacy of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and adenosine deaminase (ADA) for diagnosing tuberculosis pericarditis in a cohort of Iranian patients presenting with pericarditis. We enrolled 38 patients with presentation of pericarditis. All patients underwent diagnostic and therapeutic pericardiostomy with drainage and biopsy. Adenosine deaminase and interferon-gamma levels were determined in pericardial fluid samples of all patients. Pericardial tissue samples were submitted for histopathologic and microbiologic studies. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on all pericardial fluid samples to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis. From 38 patients with pericarditis, 7 cases were diagnosed as having tuberculosis pericarditis (18.4%). Mean concentration of interferon-gamma in tuberculosis group was significantly higher compared to non-tuberculosis group (69257 pg/l [range: 26600-148000] vs. 329 pg/l [range: 0-2200], P<0.000). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve showed a value of 14400 pg/l as the cutoff point with a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 100% for diagnosing tuberculosis pericardial effusion. Adenosine deaminase was not found to be significantly higher in tuberculosis group in comparison with non-tuberculosis causes of pericardial effusion (35.7 [range: 9-69] vs. 36.03 [range: 8-420], P=0.28). In this study interferon-gamma showed to be a valuable diagnostic test for detection of tuberculosis pericarditis among a cohort of Iranian patients. We suggest using interferon-gamma to diagnose tuberculosis pericarditis to make diagnose in case of suspicion. While in this study, adenosine deaminase measurement did not prove to have the characteristics of an accurate diagnostic test for tuberculosis pericarditis.
Sepsis constitutes an important cause of hospital admission with a high mortality rate. Appropriate antibiotic therapy is the cornerstone of therapy in patients with sepsis. Although numerous studies have recommended early antibiotic initiation in severe sepsis or septic shock stages of sepsis syndrome, its role in treatment of patients with sepsis who have not entered these stages remains to be investigated. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of door-to-antibiotic time in sepsis patients with various degrees of severity. This is a longitudinal prospective cohort study on adult patients admitted with sepsis to the emergency department. Sepsis was defined as presence of at least two criteria of systemic inflammatory response syndrome and procalcitonin levels ≥ 2μg/l. Severity of sepsis was determined using the APACHE II (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II) scoring system. Time to antibiotic administration was recorded and its relationship with mortality was assessed. A total of 145 patients were eligible for enrollment. The mean age was 60.4 years and the mean APACHE score was 13.7. The overall in-hospital mortality was 21.4%, and the mean length of stay in hospital was 211.9 hours. The mean door-to-antibiotic time for our patients was 104.4 minutes. Antibiotic administration time and mortality in patients with APACHE scores of 21 or higher (P=0.05) were significantly related; whereas such a relationship was not observed for patients with APACHE scores of 11- 20 (P=0.46). We observed early antibiotic initiation for patients in sepsis phase with higher severity scores was associated with significant improvement in survival rate.
Because microaspiration of contaminated supraglottic secretions past the endotracheal tube cuff is considered to be central in the pathogenesis of pneumonia, improved design of tracheal tubes with new cuff material and shape have reduced the size and number of folds, which together with the addition of suction ports above the cuff to drain pooled subglottic secretions leads to reduced aspiration of oropharyngeal secretions. So we conducted a study to compare the prophylactic effects of polyurethane-cylindrical or tapered cuff and polyvinyl chloride cuff endotracheal tubes (ETT) on ventilator-associated pneumonia. This randomized clinical trial was carried out in a 12 bed surgical intensive care unit. 96 patients expected to require mechanical ventilation more than 96 hours were randomly allocated to one of three following groups: Polyvinyl chloride cuff (PCV) ETT, Polyurethane (PU) cylindrical Sealguard ETT and PU Taperguard ETT. Cuff pressure monitored every three hours 3 days in all patients. Mean cuff pressure didn't have significant difference between three groups during 72 hours. Pneumonia was seen in 11 patients (34%) in group PVC, 8 (25%) in Sealguard and 7 (21%) in Taperguard group. Changes in mean cuff pressure between Sealguard and PVC tubes and also between Taperguard and PVC tubes did not show any significant difference. There was no significant difference in overinflation between three groups. The use of ETT with PU material results in reducing ventilator-associated pneumonia compared to ETT with PVC cuff. In PU tubes Taperguard has less incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia compared to Sealguard tubes.
In this study, we examined the role of early acetazolamide administration in reducing the risk of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage in patients with a high risk of permanent CSF leakage. In a randomised clinical trial, 57 patients with a high risk of permanent CSF leakage (rhinorrhea, otorrhea, pneumatocele or imaging-based evidence of severe skull-base fracture) were analysed. In the experimental group, acetazolamide, at 25 mg/kg/day, was started in the first 48 hours after admission. In the control group, acetazolamide was administered after the first 48 hours at the same dose administered to the patients in the experimental group. The following factors were compared between the two groups: duration of CSF leakage, duration of hospital stay, incidence of meningitis, need for surgical intervention and need for lumbar puncture (LP) and lumbar drainage (LD). All of the patients in the experimental group stopped having CSF leakage less than 14 days after the first day of admission, but 6 out of 21 patients (22%) in the control group continued having CSF leakage after 14 days of admission, which was a significant difference (P=0.01). This study showed that early acetazolamide administration can prevent CSF leakage in patients with a high risk of permanent CSF leak.
Infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a progressive condition which may cause endothelial dysfunction and liver damage leading to coagulopathy. With adventure of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), life expectancy has prolonged in HIV positive patients but several acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related conditions such as coagulopathies are responsible for associated morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to evaluate the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of coagulation, serum level of fibrinogen and platelet count in HIV positive patients and compare it with negative healthy individuals. Through a case-control study, 114 HIV seropositive patients were compared with 114 seronegative samples in terms of hematological and other coagulation parameters. Mean age of study patients was 37.48 years. Intra venous drug abuse was the most common route of infection transmission with a prevalence of more than 50%. HIV route of transmission had a direct relationship with PTT abnormal levels (P<0.0001). However, this relationship was not significant for PT values. Stages of HIV disease and administration of HAART did not reveal any significant relationship with PT and PTT. There was also a statistically significant correlation between CD4+< 200 and PT in case group (P=0.008). On the other hands, in control group, CD4+ had a weak relationship with PTT (P=0.02) and an inverse correlation with serum fibrinogen (P=0.013). Hematological parameters and serum fibrinogen are decreased in HIV positive patients especially in direct relation with CD4+ cell count<200 cell/µl. PT and PTT abnormal values are also more prevalent in this population.
Pruritus is a common and bothersome problem among uremic patients which negatively affects life quality and prognosis of the patient. Various factors are known to be involved in the development of pruritus. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency and the factors which may have relationship with uremic pruritus, especially bone mineral metabolism indicators. Current cross-sectional study was done on 99 hemodialysis patients. Having pruritus, its duration, severity and correlation with patient's laboratory data was evaluated. For each patient a questionnaire was filled. The mean age of patients was 55.9±15.4 (23-87) years and 35.7% were female. They were on hemodialysis for 74.79±75.04 months. Frequency of pruritus was 58.6% (58 patients). Considering the severity, 16.2% suffered from severe pruritus, measured by visual analogue scale (VAS). Pruritus was more common in those on dialysis for more than 2 years (0.014). 82.8% of those with VAS of less than 3, in comparison with 37.5% of those with VAS of greater than 7, had no complaint of awakening due to pruritus. The frequency of pruritus and its severity was more in patients with higher serum phosphorus level (P=0.048). It seems that phosphate control which is not mainly attributed to dialysis adequacy and efficiency, needs more attention not only by medical team but also by patient. Decreasing the phosphate content of regimen may be cheap and helpful modality in pruritus management.
Any suboptimum treatment in the management of patients can lead to medication errors (MEs) that may increase morbidity and mortality in hospitalized individuals. By establishing well-designed patient care activities within the managed care setting, clinical pharmacists can cooperate with other health care professionals to provide quality care and maximize safety. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency and prevention of MEs by clinical pharmacists. This was a cross-sectional interventional study conducted in internal wards of a teaching hospital during a two-month period. During this period, patient records, and physician orders were reviewed by clinical pharmacists. Any prescription error identified was documented. Incorrect drug selection, dose, dosage form, frequency, or route of administration all were considered as medication errors. Then, the clinical pharmacist discuss about findings with the clinical fellows to change faulty orders. The frequency and types of MEs in different wards that were detected and prevented by clinical pharmacists was documented. During the study period, in 132 patients, 262 errors were detected (1.98 per each). Wrong frequency 71 (27%), forget to order 37 (14.1%), wrong selection 33 (12.5%), drug interactions 26 (9.9%), forget to discontinue 25 (9.5%) and inappropriate dose adjustment in renal impairment 25 (9.5%) were the most types of errors. Cardiovascular medications were the class with the highest detected errors (31.6%) followed by gastrointestinal agents (15.6%). Medication errors are common problems in medical wards that their frequency can be restricted by the intervention of clinical pharmacists.
Study of students' knowledge about air pollution can help authorities to have better imagination of this critical environmental problem. This research examines guidance school and high school students' ideas about air pollution and the results may be useful for the respective authorities to improve cultural and educational aspects of next generation. In this cross-sectional study, a closed questionnaire was used to examine knowledge and ideas of 2140 randomly selected school students of Tehran-Iran about composition of unpolluted air, air pollution and its causes and consequences. Cognitive scores were also calculated. Outcomes were compared with results of similar researches in Australia, Hong Kong and the United Kingdom. While a student's 'cognitive score' could range from -16 to +16, Iranian students' mean cognitive score was equal to +2.97. There was not significant statistical difference between girls and boys (P=0.32). In response to question "most common gas in unpolluted air" nitrogen was mentioned by only 23.7%, While 45.1% of students mentioned oxygen. In general, student's knowledge was not acceptable and there were some misconceptions such as "supposing oxygen as the most prevalent gas in unpolluted air". The findings of this survey indicate that, this important stratum of society of Iran have been received no sufficient and efficient education and sensitization on this matter.
Smoking is known as a major cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and hence immediate and effective interventions are required for its elimination. This study aimed to collect valid data with regard to cigarette smoking in adult population of north of Iran for policy making by a meta-analysis of the documents of national non-communicable disease risk factors surveillance system. We investigated relevant evidences by searching in published and non-electronic databases. Data were extracted based on variables such as year of the study, sex, age group and prevalence of smoking habit. Based on results of heterogeneity, we applied fixed or random effects model to estimate the overall prevalence of cigarette smoking. All analyses were performed using STATA 11 software. A total of 20747 subjects (10381 males and 10366 females) in five age groups 15-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54 and 55-64 years were interviewed. Meta-analysis in men and women showed prevalence of 19.2% (15.8-22.6%) and 0.3% (0.2-0.5%) respectively. Results of the present meta-analysis showed as much as one fifth of male population of north of Iran are smoker. Subgroup analysis also revealed that the rate of smoking was higher among the middle-aged men.
This was a prospective cross-sectional study of consecutive transported patients by emergency medical service (EMS) to a referral hospital. The goal of this study was the evaluation of emergency medical technician intermediate prediction about their transported patients disposition in Emergency Department of Imam Khomeini Hospital. 2950 patients were transported to this hospital, Questionnaires were submitted in 300 of consecutive patient transports and completed data were obtained and available upon arrival at hospital for 267 of these cases. Emergency medical technicians intermediate (EMT-I) were asked to predict whether the transported patient would require admission to the hospital, and if so, what will be their prediction of patient actual disposition. Their predictions were compared with emergency specialist physicians. EMT-I predicted that 208 (78%) transports would lead to admission to the hospital, after actual disposition, 232 (%87) patients became admitted. The sensitivity of predicting any admission was 65%, with positive predictive value (PPV) of 39% and specificity of 86% with negative predictive value (NPV) of 94%. The sensitivity of predicting trauma patients (56.2% of total patients) was 55% with PPV of 38%, specificity of 86% and for Non-trauma patients' sensitivity was 80% with PPV of 40% and specificity of 82%. EMT-I in our emergency medical system have very limited ability in prediction of admission and disposition in transported patients and their prediction were better in Non-trauma patients. So in our EMS, the pre-hospital diversion and necessity of transporting policies should not be based on EMS personnel disposition.
Endocarditis due to Aspergillus infection is a rare complication in patients with hematological malignancies. Here, we present a case of aspergillus endocarditis in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) successfully treated with antifungal therapy and surgical treatment. The patient was a 51 years old male, a known case of AML who was admitted to our medical center for evacuating his valvular vegetations and repairing his atrial septal defect. He underwent an open heart surgery to relinquish his thromboses and also received an antifungal regimen. The patient tolerated the procedure well and eight months after his surgery, the patient remains asymptomatic. Successful treatment of this severe case of aspergillus endocarditis justifies a multidisciplinary method to be as a safe and effective approach to manage these patients.
Granular cell tumor (GCT) was first described by Abrikossoff in 1926. GCT is a rarely seen soft tissue tumor and is generally benign. While the tumor can be seen in all parts of the body it is generally located on the head and neck region, and especially on the tongue. GCT is rarely seen in the anal-perianal region. In accordance with literature this case was reported because it was thought to be the 27th anal-perianal located GCT case. In this case report, approximately 0,5-1 cm pedunculated polypoid lesion was determined in the perianal region during the physical examination of a 23 year old female patient who applied with palpable mass complaint in the perianal region. Lesion in the patient was totally excited with healthy skin-subcutaneous tissue under local anesthesia. A benign granular cell tumor was detected in the histopathological examination. Positive staining was monitored immunohistochemically with S-100 and neuron specific enolase (NSE). GCT is a rarely seen tumor in the anal-perianal region and its malign transformation rate is very low. Even lesions seen in the perianal region have clinically a benign appearance, a histopathological examination should be conducted and also GCT should be kept in mind during diagnosis. Malign-benign separation of these lesions is difficult so histopathological examination should be conducted with great care. Large local excision in the treatment provides curative treatment. But for those presenting malign transformation further examination must be performed for metastasis. After the treatment local recurrence and metastasis should be considered carefully. Prognosis of metastatic disease is very bad.